The role of metacognition, type of feedback, and kind of incentives for motivation to learn
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Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA
Submission date: 2021-03-31
Final revision date: 2021-05-18
Acceptance date: 2021-05-22
Online publication date: 2021-06-28
Publication date: 2021-12-01
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2021;9(4):316–327
Two experiments were designed to investigate the motivational role of the metacognitive self (MCS, meaning self-awareness of biases) and kind of feedback (success vs. failure vs. control group) in willingness to learn. We predict that the condition of failure enhances motivation to learn. Predictions relate to the first experiment and social incentives, not to spatial ones.

Material and methods:
Three hundred ninety-eight participants were individually (in front of a computer with E-Prime) and randomly assigned to experiment 1 of a social task or experiment 2 of a spatial task. Each experiment included three groups: success, failure, and control. The independent variables were metacognitive self (MCS) and type of feedback (success vs. failure vs. control). The dependent variable was the willingness to learn. Logistic regression was applied to investigate the hypothesis that the higher the level of MCS is, the more likely it is that the participants will try to learn.

As predicted, MCS was positively related to searching for self-diagnostic information in the first experiment. Furthermore, according to expectations, the experiment with a social task showed the main effects of both MCS and type of feedback. The spatial experiment did not reveal significant effects.

MCS is positively related to motivation to search for self-diagnostic information, and students are more willing to learn in the face of failure. According to expectations, the experiment with a social task substantiated the motivational role of MCS and the role of negative feedback in willingness to learn.

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