Comparing state anxiety and mindfulness between mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation whilst controlling for the effect of altruism and boredom
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Birmingham City University, Birmingham, United Kingdom
Submission date: 2019-01-20
Final revision date: 2019-04-15
Acceptance date: 2019-04-23
Online publication date: 2019-05-29
Publication date: 2019-06-24
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2019;7(2):109–119
Although it has been determined that mindfulness meditations are positively related to personality constructs such as conscien-tiousness, there is no clear evidence of whether personality can influence the effectiveness of mindfulness intervention. The aim of the current research was to investigate the immediate effects of single sessions of mindfulness meditation (MM) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) on state anxiety and state mindfulness and establish whether there is a difference between the out-comes of the two practices. Altruism and boredom were used as covariates to observe whether they have a significant impact on the final results.

Participants and procedure:
University students (N = 80) were randomly allocated to either the MM or LKM condition and were asked to complete the scales before and after they listened to audio guided meditation instructions. Prior to the meditation participants completed state mindfulness and state anxiety scales. Post-meditation participants again filled in state mindfulness and state anxiety scales, and trait scales on altruism and boredom.

The results indicated that both types of mindfulness-based practices successfully decreased the initial levels of anxiety and ele-vated state mindfulness. Non-significant differences between the outcomes of the meditative practices were observed when con-trolling for altruism and boredom.

Alternative practices appeal more to some participants than to others. Clinical implications are discussed with a focus on the beneficial effects of both MM and LKM.

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