The general factor of personality is related to emotional, psychological, and social well-being
More details
Hide details
Department of Human Sciences, University of Economics and Human Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Social Innovation Chair, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Department of Psychology, Sociology and Social Work, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Institute of Psychology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Submission date: 2022-11-03
Final revision date: 2023-06-28
Acceptance date: 2023-08-28
Online publication date: 2023-10-09
Corresponding author
Ana Blasco-Belled   

Department of Psychology, Sociology and Social Work, University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2024;12(1):74-77
The general factor of personality is defined as a blend of socially desirable attributes of basic personality traits. It is related to a variety of socially desirable qualities, including emotional well-being. However, its relationship with psychological and social well-being has been underexplored.

Participants and procedure:
Across three studies (N = 556, N = 448, N = 3,294) from three different countries (Poland, Spain, and USA), we show that the general factor of personality is highly related to a general factor of well-being and to its specific dimensions.

Results from Study 1 confirmed this association using a basic measure of well-being (i.e., the Mental Health Continuum), results from Study 2 confirmed this association using six specific measures of well-being, while results from Study 3 reproduced a congruent result using a large-scale community sample.

Our findings align with the existing literature stressing the positive link between the general factor of personality and aspects of well-being.

Anglim, J., Horwood, S., Smillie, L. D., Marrero, R. J., & Wood, J. K. (2020). Predicting psychological and subjective well-being from personality: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 146, 279–323.
Cieciuch, J., & Strus, W. (2017). Two-factor model of personality. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.),.
Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences (pp. 1–17). Springer International Publishing.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Hedonia, eudaimonia, and well-being: an introduction. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 1–11.
Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psy-chological Bulletin, 125, 276–302.
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personal-ity Assessment, 49, 71–75.
Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.
Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The Mental Health Continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43, 207–222.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155.
Musek, J. (2007). A general factor of personality: Evidence for the big one in the five-factor model. Journal of Re-search in Personality, 41, 1213–1233.
Rushton, J. P., & Irving, P. (2011). The general factor of personality: Normal and abnormal. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of individual differences (pp. 134–163). Blackwell Publishing.
Ryff, C., Almeida, D., Ayanian, J., Binkley, N., Carr, D. S., Coe, C., Davidson, R., Grzywacz, J., Karlamangla, A., Krueger, R., Lachman, M., Love, G., Mailick, M., Mroczek, D., Radler, B., Seeman, T., Sloan, R., Thomas, D., Weinstein, M., & Williams, D. (2014). Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 3). Retrieved from https://searchworks.stanford.e....
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.
Schermer, J. A., & Holden, R. R. (2019). Personality facet loadings onto the general factor of personality change when social desirability responding is considered. Personality and Individual Differences, 147, 200–203.
Schermer, J. A., Holden, R. R., & Krammer, G. (2019). The general factor of personality is very robust under fak-ing conditions. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 63–68.
Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). Short and extra-short forms of the Big Five Inventory–2: The BFI-2-S and BFI-2-XS. Journal of Research in Personality, 68, 69–81.
Van der Linden, D., Tsaousis, I., & Petrides, K. V. (2012). Overlap between General Factors of Personality in the Big Five, Giant Three, and trait emotional intelligence. Personality and individual Differences, 53, 175–179.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and de-pressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 346–353.
Zajenkowski, M., van der Linden, D., & Rogoza, R. (2022). Self-assessed intelligence, objective intelligence and the higher-order structure of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 190, 111553.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top