Demographic factors, personality, and executive functions as predictors of procrastination in Polish and Ukrainian youth
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Institute of Psychology and Health Sciences, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, Ukraine
Katarzyna Markiewicz   

Institute of Psychology and Health Sciences, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2022-07-03
Final revision date: 2023-01-04
Acceptance date: 2023-01-10
Online publication date: 2023-03-20
Procrastination is an irrational and unproductive behavior that disrupts psychological well-being and the quality of interper-sonal relationships. The study aimed to determine the differences between Polish and Ukrainian youth in procrastinating and establish personality and executive functions as predictors of procrastination. Also, cultural differences were taken into account.

Participants and procedure:
It included 180 students (86 females and 94 males) aged 12 to 17; 84 lived in Lublin, Poland, while 96 lived in Lviv, Ukraine. The Pure Procrastination Scale, Ten Item Personality Inventory, and Comprehensive Executive Function Inventory were used.

There were no significant differences in the level of procrastination between the whole Polish and Ukrainian groups, but age was an important predictor of procrastination. Gender was not a differentiating factor within the Polish or Ukrainian group. The most stable negative set of predictors of procrastination appeared to be age, agreeableness, and inhibitory control. These traits can be helpful in dealing with procrastination tendencies.

Our research shows that an ability to control procrastination depends more on predispositions related to personality traits than on executive function improvement linked to the maturation of the frontal lobes. Combining the demographic, person-ality, and executive variables showed that students in the older age groups were more resistant to procrastination.

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