Editor's Choice
RESEARCH PAPER
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Time perspective (TP) theory suggests that people tend to categorize their experience in terms of the past, the present, and the future. Studies have shown that a balanced TP profile supports well-being while misbalance in the TP profile is associated with various psychopathology. On the other hand, an intolerance of uncertainty (IU) underpins a variety of affective disorders. There are still a lot of questions about the relationship between IU and the TP. The purpose of this study was to clarify the interrelation between the time perspective distortion and intolerance of uncertainty level and to examine the degree to which IU and TP scales are associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms in a military sample.

Participants and procedure:
The sample of servicemen (N = 129) completed ZTPI, the IUS-12 and PCL-5 questionnaires. Correlational and regression analyses were conducted with IU scores, TP scales and DBTP and DBTP-r coefficients.

Results:
IU total score correlates with Past Negative (PN), Present Hedonistic (PH), Present Fatalistic (PF), and Future (F) time perspectives in the military sample. Groups that differ in the level of IU have a significant difference in Past Negative TP. Regression analysis models using DBTP as well as DBTP-r coefficients showed similar results. Inhibitory IU, not Prospective IU, turned out to be a predictor of post-traumatic stress symptoms in this military, non-clinical sample.

Conclusions:
Further studies should determine directions of associations between intolerance of uncertainty and time perspective.

 
REFERENCES (54)
1.
Bardeen, J. R., Fergus, T. A., & Orcutt, H. K. (2017). Examining the specific dimensions of distress tolerance that prospectively predict perceived stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 46, 211–223. https://doi.org/10.1080/165060....
 
2.
Bavolar, J. (2019). The Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale – psychometric characteristics of the Slovak version, associations with related constructs and applications in work psychology. Sborník Konference Psychologie Práce a Organizace 2019, 12–21. https://doi.org/10.5817/cz.mun....
 
3.
Boelen, P. A. (2019). Intolerance of uncertainty predicts analogue posttraumatic stress following adverse life events. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 32, 498–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/106158....
 
4.
Bottesi, G., Noventa, S., Freeston, M. H., & Ghisi, M. (2019). Seeking certainty about intolerance of uncertainty: Addressing old and new issues through the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Revised. PLoS One, 14, e0211929. https://doi.org/10.1371/journa....
 
5.
Banducci, A. N., Bujarski, S. J., Bonn-Miller, M. O., Patel, A., & Connolly, K. M. (2016). The impact of intolerance of emotional distress and uncertainty on veterans with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 41, 73–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
6.
Carleton, R. N. (2016). Into the unknown: a review and synthesis of contemporary models involving uncertainty. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 39, 30–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
7.
Carleton, R. N., Norton, M. P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. (2007). Fearing the unknown: a short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
8.
Cooke, G. P., Doust, J. A., & Steele, M. C. (2013). A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars. BMC Medical Education, 13, 2. https://doi.org/.
 
9.
1186/1472-6920-13-2.
 
10.
Dugas, M. J., Gagnon, F., Ladouceur, R., & Freeston, M. H. (1998). Generalized anxiety disorder: a preliminary test of a conceptual model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 215–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0005-....
 
11.
Durak Batıgün, A., & Şenkal Ertürk, İ. (2021). COVID-19 associated psychological symptoms in Turkish population: a path model. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
12.
Fetzner, M. G., Horswill, S. C., Boelen, P. A., & Carleton, R. N. (2013). Intolerance of uncertainty and PTSD symptoms: Exploring the construct relationship in a community sample with a heterogeneous trauma history. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37, 725–734. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608....
 
13.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed.). Sage Publications.
 
14.
Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 791–802. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8....
 
15.
Gentes, E. L., & Ruscio, A. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relation of intolerance of uncertainty to symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 923–933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.....
 
16.
Gradus, J. L. (2005). Epidemiology of PTSD. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/profes....
 
17.
Grenier, S., Barrette, A. M., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). Intolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of ambiguity: Similarities and differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 593–600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
18.
Holman, E. A., & Silver, R. C. (1998). Getting “stuck” in the past: Temporal orientation and coping with trauma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1146–1163. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
19.
Hromova, H. (2021). Uncertainty tolerance measurement tools. Ukrainian adaptation of Carleton’s Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (short version). Scientific Studios on Social and Political Psychology, 47, 115–130. https://doi.org/10.33120/ssj.v....
 
20.
Jankowski, K. S., Zajenkowski, M., & Stolarski, M. (2020). What are the optimal levels of time perspectives? Deviation from the balanced time perspective-revisited (DBTP-r). Psychologica Belgica, 60, 164–183. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb.487.
 
21.
Karachevsky, A. B. (2016). Адаптація шкал та опитувальників українською та російською мовами щодо посттравматичного стресового розладу [Adaptation of PTSD scales and questionnaires for Ukrainian and Russian languages]. Збірник наукових праць співробітників НМАПО ім. П. Л. Шупика, 25, 607–622.
 
22.
Kooij, D. T., Tims, M., & Akkermans, J. (2017). The influence of future time perspective on work engagement and job performance: The role of job crafting. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 26, 4–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/135943....
 
23.
McEvoy, P. M., Hyett, M. P., Shihata, S., Price, J. E., & Strachan, L. (2019). The impact of methodological and measurement factors on transdiagnostic associations with intolerance of uncertainty: a meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 73, 101778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.....
 
24.
McEvoy, P. M., & Mahoney, A. E. (2011). Achieving certainty about the structure of intolerance of uncertainty in a treatment-seeking sample with anxiety and depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 112–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
25.
McKay, M. T., & Cole, J. C. (2020). The relationship between balanced and negative time perspectives, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyc....
 
26.
Mucha, M., Wiśniewska, M., & Nęcka, E. (2020). Time perspective and self-control: Metacognitive management of time is important for efficient self-regulation of behavior. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 8, 83–91. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
27.
Oglesby, M. E., Gibby, B. A., Mathes, B. M., Short, N. A., & Schmidt, N. B. (2017). Intolerance of uncertainty and post-traumatic stress symptoms: an investigation within a treatment seeking trauma-exposed sample. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 72, 34–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comp....
 
28.
Ouellet, C., Langlois, F., Provencher, M., & Gosselin, P. (2019). Intolerance of uncertainty and difficulties in emotion regulation: Proposal for an integrative model of generalized anxiety disorder. European Review of Applied Psychology, 69, 9–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap....
 
29.
Oyanadel, C., & Buela-Casal, G. (2014). Time perception and psychopathology: Influence of time perspective on quality of life of severe mental illness. Actas Espanolas de Psiquiatria, 42, 99–107.
 
30.
Paluszek, M. M., Asmundson, A. J. N., Landry, C. A., McKay, D., Taylor, S., & Asmundson, G. J. G. (2021). Effects of anxiety sensitivity, disgust, and intolerance of uncertainty on the COVID stress syndrome: a longitudinal assessment of transdiagnostic constructs and the behavioural immune system. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 50, 191–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/165060....
 
31.
Papastamatelou, J., Unger, A., & Zachariadis, A. (2020). Time perspectives and proneness to PTSD among Syrian refugees in Greece. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 26, 375–388. https://doi.org/10.1080/153250....
 
32.
Raines, A. M., Oglesby, M. E., Walton, J. L., True, G., & Franklin, C. L. (2019). Intolerance of uncertainty and DSM-5 PTSD symptoms: Associations among a treatment seeking veteran sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 62, 61–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
33.
Radio Svoboda (2021, February 19). The UN has counted the number of victims of hostilities in Donbass. Retrieved from https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a....
 
34.
Rönnlund, M., Åström, E., & Carelli, M. G. (2017). Time perspective in late adulthood: Aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being. Timing & Time Perception, 5, 77–98. https://doi.org/10.1163/221344....
 
35.
Satici, B., Saricali, M., Satici, S. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty and mental well-being: Serial mediation by rumination and fear of COVID-19. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469....
 
36.
Senyk, О. (2012). Адаптація опитувальника часової перспективи особистості Ф. Pімбардо (ZTPI) [Adaptation of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI)]. Соціальна психологія, 1–2, 153–168.
 
37.
Sircova, A., van de Vijver, F. J. R., Osin, E., Milfont, T. L., Fieulaine, N., Kislali-Erginbilgic, A., Zimbardo, P. G., Djarallah, S., Chorfi, M. S., Leite, U. D. R., Lin, H., Lv, H., Bunjevac, T., Tomaš, T., Punek, J., Vrlec, A., Matić, J., Bokulić, M., Klicperová-Baker, M., … Boyd, J. N. (2014). A global look at time: a 24-country study of the equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Sage Open, 4, 215824401351568. https://doi.org/10.1177/215824....
 
38.
Stolarski, M., Bitner, J., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards. Time & Society, 20, 346–363. https://doi.org/10.1177/096146....
 
39.
Stolarski, M., & Cyniak-Cieciura, M. (2016). Balanced and less traumatized: Balanced time perspective mediates the relationship between temperament and severity of PTSD syndrome in motor vehicle accident survivor sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 456–461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
40.
Stolarski, M., & Witowska, J. (2017). Balancing one’s own time perspective from aerial view: Metacognitive processes in temporal framing. In A. Kostić & D. Chadee (Eds.), Time perspective (pp. 117–141). Palgrave Macmillan.
 
41.
Stolarski, M., Zajenkowski, M., Jankowski, K. S., & Szymaniak, K. (2020). Deviation from the balanced time perspective: a systematic review of empirical relationships with psychological variables. Personality and Individual Differences, 156, 109772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
42.
Trivedi, R. B., Post, E. P., Sun, H., Pomerantz, A., Saxon, A. J., Piette, J. D., Maynard, C., Arnow, B., Curtis, I., Fihn, S. D., & Nelson, K. (2015). Prevalence, comorbidity, and prognosis of mental health among US veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 105, 2564–2569. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2....
 
43.
Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review, 117, 440–463. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00189....
 
44.
van Beek, W., Berghuis, H., Kerkhof, A., & Beekman, A. (2011). Time perspective, personality and psychopathology: Zimbardo’s time perspective inventory in psychiatry. Time & Society, 20, 364–374. https://doi.org/10.1177/096146....
 
45.
van der Kolk, B. A. (2015). The body keeps the score: Brain, mind, and body in the healing of trauma. Penguin Publishing Group.
 
46.
van der Kolk, B. A., & van der Hart, O. (1991). The intrusive past: The flexibility of memory and the engraving of trauma. American Imago, 48, 425–454.
 
47.
Walg, M., Eder, L. L., Martin, A., & Hapfelmeier, G. (2020). Distorted time perspective in adolescent Afghan and Syrian refugees is associated with psychological distress. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 208, 729–735. https://doi.org/10.1097/nmd.00....
 
48.
Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Keane, T. M., Palmieri, P. A., Marx, B. P., & Schnurr, P. P. (2013). The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) – standard [measurement instrument]. Retrieved from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/.
 
49.
Yang, Q., van den Bos, K., & Li, Y. (2021). Intolerance of uncertainty, future time perspective, and self-control. Personality and Individual Differences, 177, 110810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
50.
Yao, N., Qian, M., Jiang, Y., & Elhai, J. D. (2020). The influence of intolerance of uncertainty on anxiety and depression symptoms in Chinese-speaking samples: Structure and validity of the Chinese translation of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 103, 406–415. https://doi.org/10.1080/002238....
 
51.
Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: a valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
52.
Zimbardo, P., & Boyd, J. (2009). The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life. Atria Books.
 
53.
Zimbardo, P., Sword, R., & Sword, R. (2012). The time cure: Overcoming PTSD with the new psychology of time perspective therapy. Jossey-Bass.
 
54.
Zvolensky, M. J., Vujanovic, A. A., Bernstein, A., & Leyro, T. (2010). Distress tolerance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 406–410. https://doi.org/10.1177/096372....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192