RESEARCH PAPER
External shame, loneliness, psychological distress, and well-being: insights from the Turkish adaptation of the Other as Shamer Scale-2
 
More details
Hide details
1
Artvin Coruh University, Artvin, Turkey
2
Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey
Submission date: 2020-03-24
Final revision date: 2020-05-01
Acceptance date: 2020-05-06
Online publication date: 2020-06-30
Publication date: 2020-07-20
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2020;8(2):154–167
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
In this paper, we examine the Other as Shamer Scale-2 (OAS-2), a unidimensional and brief scale to directly assess external shame. In three studies with three independent samples of a Turkish university, we present evidence for OAS-2 validity with respect to well-being outcomes (subjective happiness, flourishing, and subjective well-being) and psychological distress out-comes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness) through direct comparisons with existing measures.

Participants and procedure:
In Study 1 (N = 311), confirmatory factor analyses, measurement invariance across gender, and Item Response Theory (IRT) were examined. In Study 2 (N = 380), criterion-related validities of the OAS-2 were analyzed. In Study 3 (N = 252), incremen-tal validity was examined using PROCESS. Also, internal consistency, composite reliability, and temporal reliability (n = 89) of the OAS-2 were investigated.

Results:
In Study 1, confirmatory factor analyses supported the unidimensionality of the measure. The results provide support for meas-urement invariance across gender. All item scores fit the IRT model and were fit with ordered, progressing hierarchies in their step difficulties. In Study 2, criterion-related validity for the OAS-2 was demonstrated through positive correlations with loneli-ness, and negative correlations with subjective happiness and flourishing. In Study 3, findings indicated the mediation impact of external shame on well-being via psychological distress. The OAS-2 showed satisfactory reliability coefficients.

Conclusions:
Overall, the OAS-2 proved to be a valuable and reliable tool, which presents a short form to measure external shame. In addi-tion, it was observed that the OAS-2 was related to both well-being and psychological distress.

 
REFERENCES (81)
1.
Akin, A., & Çetın, B. (2007). The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The study of validity and reliabil-ity. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 7, 260–268.
 
2.
Akin, A., & Satici, S. A. (2011). Subjective Happiness Scale: a study of validity and reliability. Sakarya Universi-ty Journal of Education Faculty, 21, 65–77.
 
3.
Allan, S., Gilbert, P., & Goss, K. (1994). An exploration of shame measures – II: Psychopathology. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 719–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8....
 
4.
Baker, F. B. (2001). The basics of Item Response Theory. Second edition. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED4582....
 
5.
Balsamo, M., Macchia, A., Carlucci, L., Picconi, L., Tommasi, M., Gilbert, P., & Saggino, A. (2015). Measure-ment of external shame: an inside view. Journal of Personality Assessment, 97, 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1080/002238....
 
6.
Benevides, J., da Motta, C., Sousa, M., Caldeira, S. N., & Carvalho, C. (2016). The psychometric properties of the brief Other as Shamer Scale for Children (OAS‐C): Preliminary validation studies in a sample of Portu-guese children. BMC Health Services Research, 16, Suppl. 3.
 
7.
Breggin, P. R. (2015). The biological evolution of guilt, shame and anxiety: a new theory of negative legacy emotions. Medical Hypotheses, 85, 17–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy....
 
8.
Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written material. In H. C. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
 
9.
Bugay, A., & Demir, A. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of Trait Shame and Guilt Scale. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 45, 17–30.
 
10.
Castilho, P., Pinto‐Gouveia, J., & Duarte, J. (2017). Two forms of self‐criticism mediate differently the shame-psychopathological symptoms link. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90, 44–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.1....
 
11.
Cavalera, C., Pagnini, F., Zurloni, V., Piazzini, D. B., Realdon, O., Castelnuovo, G., Todisco P., & Molinari, E. (2017). Erratum to: Shame proneness and eating disorders: a comparison between clinical and non-clinical samples. Eating and Weight Disorders, 22, 379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519....
 
12.
Chalmers, R. P. (2012). Mirt: a multidimensional item response theory package for the R environment. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v....
 
13.
Chang, C. C., Lin, C. Y., Gronholm, P. C., & Wu, T. H. (2018). Cross-validation of two commonly used self-stigma measures, Taiwan versions of the Internalized Stigma Mental Illness Scale and Self-Stigma Scale-Short, for people with mental illness. Assessment, 25, 777–792. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319....
 
14.
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equa-tion Modeling, 14, 464–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/107055....
 
15.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invari-ance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328....
 
16.
Choma, B. L., Shove, C., Busseri, M. A., Sadava, S. W., & Hosker, A. (2009). Assessing the role of body image coping strategies as mediators or moderators of the links between self-objectification, body shame, and well-being. Sex Roles, 61, 699–713. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199....
 
17.
Cibich, M. (2016). Teaching and learning guide for: Moving beyond “Shame is bad”: How a functional emotion can become problematic. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10, 575–578. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.1....
 
18.
Cibich, M., Woodyatt, L., & Wenzel, M. (2016). Moving beyond “shame is bad”: How a functional emotion can become problematic. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 10, 471–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.1....
 
19.
Clapton, N. E., Williams, J., & Jones, R. S. (2018). The role of shame in the development and maintenance of psychological distress in adults with intellectual disabilities: a narrative review and synthesis. Journal of Ap-plied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 343–359. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.12....
 
20.
Colledani, D., Anselmi, P., & Robusto, E. (2019). Using multidimensional item response theory to develop an abbreviated form of the Italian version of Eysenck’s IVE questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differ-ences, 142, 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
21.
Cook, D. R. (1994). Internalized Shame Scale: Technical manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Sys-tems, Inc.
 
22.
Coskun, K., & Kara, C. (2019). Moral identity test (MIT) for children: Reliability and validity. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 32, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41155....
 
23.
Cunha, M., Almeida, R., Cherpe, S., Simões, S., & Marques, M. (2016). A longitudinal approach to the contribu-tion of trauma and external shame on depressive symptoms in adolescence. European Psychiatry, 33, S129–S130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurp....
 
24.
Cunha, M., Xavier, A. M. D. J., Cherpe, S., & Gouveia, J. P. (2017). Assessment of shame in adolescents: The Other as Shamer Scale. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 33, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102.3....
 
25.
Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Per-sonality Assessment, 49, 71–75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
26.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). New well-being measures: Short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 97, 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205....
 
27.
Dogan, T., Cotok, N. A., & Gocet-Tekin, E. (2011). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (ULS-8) among university students. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 2058–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
28.
Durak, M., Senol-Durak, E., & Gencoz, T. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Life Scale among Turkish university students, correctional officers, and elderly adults. Social Indicators Research, 99, 413–429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205....
 
29.
Embretson, S. E., & Reise, S. P. (2000). Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
30.
Gençöz, T. (2000). Pozitif ve negatif duygu ölçeği: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Positive and Negative Af-fect Schedule: a study of validity and reliability]. Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 15, 19–26.
 
31.
Gilbert, P. (1998). What is shame? Some core issues and controversies. In P. Gilbert & B. Andrews (Eds.), Shame: Interpersonal behaviour, psychopathology and culture (pp. 3–36). New York: Oxford University Press.
 
32.
Gilbert, P. (2002). Body shame: a biopsychosocial conceptualisation and overview, with treatment implications. In P. Gilbert & J. Miles (Eds.), Body shame: Conceptualisation, research and treatment (pp. 3–54). London: Routledge.
 
33.
Gilbert, P. (2003). Evolution, social roles, and the differences in shame and guilt. Social Research, 70, 1205–1230.
 
34.
Gilbert, P. (2007). The evolution of shame as a marker for relationship security. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 283–309). New York: Guilford.
 
35.
Gilbert, P. (2009). Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 15, 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp....
 
36.
Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion-focused therapy. New York: Routledge.
 
37.
Gilbert, P., & Miles, J. N. (2000). Sensitivity to social put-down: Its relationship to perceptions of social rank, shame, social anxiety, depression, anger and self-other blame. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 757–774. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-....
 
38.
Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 13, 353–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.50....
 
39.
Giner-Sorolla, R., Kamau, C. W., & Castano, E. (2010). Guilt and shame through recipients’ eyes: The moderat-ing effect of blame. Social Psychology, 41, 88–92. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-9....
 
40.
Goss, K., Gilbert, P., & Allan, S. (1994). An exploration of shame measures – I: The Other as Shamer Scale. Per-sonality and Individual Differences, 17, 713–717. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8....
 
41.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2014). Multivariate data analysis. Pear-son new international edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
 
42.
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Partial, conditional, and moderated moderated mediation: Quantification, inference, and interpretation. Communication Monographs, 85, 4–40. https://doi.org/10.1080/036377....
 
43.
Hays, R. D., & DiMatteo, M. R. (1987). A short-form measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51, 69–81. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
44.
Hobart, J. C., Cano, S. J., Zajicek, J. P., & Thompson, A. J. (2007). Rating scales as outcome measures for clini-cal trials in neurology: Problems, solutions, and recommendations. The Lancet. Neurology, 6, 1094–1105. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-....
 
45.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/.
 
46.
1080/10705519909540118.
 
47.
Jafari, P., Bagheri, Z., Ayatollahi, S. M. T., & Soltani, Z. (2012). Using Rasch rating scale model to reassess the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the PedsQL TM 4.0 Generic Core Scales in school children. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10, 27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7....
 
48.
Jordan, J. V. (2004). Shame and humiliation: From isolation to relational transformation. In J. V. Jordan, M. Walker, & L. M. Hartling (Eds.), The complexity of connection (pp. 103–128). New York: Guilford Press.
 
49.
Kaufman, G. (2004). The psychology of shame: Theory and treatment of shame-based syndromes. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
 
50.
Kelly, A. C., & Carter, J. C. (2013). Why self‐critical patients present with more severe eating disorder pathology: The mediating role of shame. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 52, 148–161. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12....
 
51.
Kim, S., Thibodeau, R., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: a meta-analytic re-view. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 68–96. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00214....
 
52.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Pub-lications.
 
53.
Kotrotsiou, S., Tsoumani, E., Kotrotsiou, E., Gouva, M., Dragioti, E., & Paralikas, T. (2017). Problems of investi-gation of immigrants’ students and their relation to psychopathology. European Psychiatry, 41, S624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurp....
 
54.
Laithwaite, H., O’Hanlon, M., Collins, P., Doyle, P., Abraham, L., Porter, S., & Gumley, A. (2009). Recovery af-ter psychosis (RAP): a compassion focused programme for individuals residing in high security settings. Be-havioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 511–526. https://doi.org/10.1017/S13524....
 
55.
Lee, C. Y. S., Anderson, J. R., & Klimes‐Dougan, B. (2016). Potentially traumatic experiences, academic perfor-mance, and psychological distress: The role of shame. Journal of Counseling and Development, 94, 41–50. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcad.1....
 
56.
Lewis, H. B. (1987). Introduction: Shame – the “sleeper” in psychopathology. In H. B. Lewis (Ed.), The role of shame in symptom formation (pp. 1–28). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
 
57.
Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the De-pression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Re-search and Therapy, 33, 335–343. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7....
 
58.
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and con-struct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46, 137–155. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006....
 
59.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
60.
Marsh, H. W., Hau, K. T., & Wen, Z. (2004). In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing ap-proaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings. Structural Equation Modeling, 11, 320–341. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328....
 
61.
Marta-Simões, J., Ferreira, C., & Mendes, A. L. (2016). Exploring the effect of external shame on body apprecia-tion among Portuguese young adults: The role of self-compassion. Eating Behaviors, 23, 174–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatb....
 
62.
Matos, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Costa, V. (2013). Understanding the importance of attachment in shame trau-matic memory relation to depression: The impact of emotion regulation processes. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 20, 149–165. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.78....
 
63.
Matos, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., & Duarte, C. (2012). When I don’t like myself: Portuguese version of the internal-ized shame scale. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 15, 1411–1423. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_SJ....
 
64.
Matos, M., Pinto-Gouveia, J., Gilbert, P., Duarte, C., & Figueiredo, C. (2015). The Other as Shamer Scale-2: De-velopment and validation of a short version of a measure of external shame. Personality and Individual Dif-ferences, 74, 6–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
65.
Mensinger, J. L., Tylka, T. L., & Calamari, M. E. (2018). Mechanisms underlying weight status and healthcare avoidance in women: a study of weight stigma, body-related shame and guilt, and healthcare stress. Body Image, 25, 139–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.body....
 
66.
Mereish, E. H., & Poteat, V. P. (2015). A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 425–437. https://doi.org/10.1037/cou000....
 
67.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
 
68.
Pineles, S. L., Street, A. E., & Koenen, K. C. (2006). The differential relationships of shame–proneness and guilt–proneness to psychological and somatization symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25, 688–704. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2....
 
69.
Reeve, B. B., & Fayers, P. (2005). Applying item response theory modeling for evaluating questionnaire item and scale properties. In P. Fayers & R. D. Hays (Eds.), Assessing quality of life in clinical trials: Methods of practice (pp. 55–73). New York: Oxford University Press.
 
70.
Rostami, S., & Jowkar, B. (2016). The relationship between guilt and shame feelings with the dimensions of loneliness: The moderating effect of gender. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 10, 72–76.
 
71.
Saggino, A., Carlucci, L., Sergi, M. R., D’Ambrosio, I., Fairfield, B., Cera, N., & Balsamo, M. (2017). A validation study of the psychometric properties of the Other as Shamer Scale-2. SAGE Open, 7. https://doi.org/10.1177/215824....
 
72.
Sousa, M., Cabral, J., Benevides, J., da Motta, C., Carvalho, C. B., & Peixoto, E. (2019). Life satisfaction: Study of the predictors in a mixed Portuguese sample. Psychology, Community & Health, 8, 14–26. https://doi.org/10.5964/pch.v8....
 
73.
Tangney, J. P. (1995). Shame and guilt in interpersonal relationships. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 114–139). New York: Guilford Press.
 
74.
Telef, B. B. (2013). Psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği: Türkçeye uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [The adapta-tion of psychological well-being into Turkish: a validity and reliability study]. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 28, 374–384.
 
75.
Teroni, F., & Deonna, J. A. (2008). Differentiating shame from guilt. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 725–740. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conc....
 
76.
Thomson, P., & Jaque, S. (2018). Shame and anxiety: The mediating role of childhood adversity in dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 22, 100–108. https://doi.org/10.12678/1089-....
 
77.
Thoresen, S., Aakvaag, H. F., Strøm, I. F., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Birkeland, M. S. (2018). Loneliness as a mediator of the relationship between shame and health problems in young people exposed to childhood vi-olence. Social Science and Medicine, 211, 183–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socs....
 
78.
Vagos, P., da Silva, D. R., Brazao, N., Rijo, D., & Gilbert, P. (2016). Dimensionality and measurement invariance of the Other as Shamer Scale across diverse adolescent samples. Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 289–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
79.
Varghese, M. E. (2015). Attachment to God and psychological well-being: Shame, guilt, and self-compassion as mediators. Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Retrieved from https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/op....
 
80.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-....
 
81.
Wood, L., & Irons, C. (2017). Experienced stigma and its impacts in psychosis: The role of social rank and ex-ternal shame. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90, 419–431. https://doi.org/10.1111/papt.1....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192