RESEARCH PAPER
Conceptual replication of Seo (2008), “Self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic procrastination”
 
More details
Hide details
1
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
Submission date: 2021-04-12
Final revision date: 2021-08-04
Acceptance date: 2021-09-13
Online publication date: 2021-12-12
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2022;10(2):98–111
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Self-oriented perfectionism is the tendency to set high standards for oneself and evaluate one’s behaviour accordingly. Based on a study of 692 students in Korea, Seo (2008) reported finding a negative relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic procrastination – i.e., the tendency to procrastinate on academic tasks. Furthermore, Seo reported that this relationship was completely mediated by self-efficacy. Seo’s study has been influential in the literature but to our knowledge has not yet been independently replicated. In this study we report a preregistered conceptual replication testing five hypotheses based on Seo’s key findings.

Material and methods:
A detailed preregistration (including data processing and analysis syntax) was lodged in advance of data collection at https://osf.io/xfvd8. Participants were 575 students recruited from OECD countries using prolific.co. Academic procrastination was measured via an adapted version of the Procrastination Assessment Scale – Students, while self-oriented perfectionism was measured via the 5-item self-oriented perfectionism subscale of the Big Three Perfectionism Scale. Self-efficacy was measured via the New General Self-Efficacy Scale. Both ordinary least squares regression and structural equation modelling were used to test hypotheses.

Results:
We found no evidence of a bivariate relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic procrastination in either set of analyses. However, we did find evidence of a small and negative indirect effect of self-oriented perfectionism on academic procrastination via self-efficacy.

Conclusions:
We were only able to partially replicate Seo’s key findings, having found no evidence of a negative relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic procrastination.

 
REFERENCES (62)
1.
Ahn, S. Y., & Baek, H. J. (2013). Academic achievement-oriented society and its relationship to the psychological well-being of Korean adolescents. In C. C. Yi (Ed.), The psychological well-being of East Asian youth (pp. 265–279). Springer Netherlands.
 
2.
Bong, M., Hwang, A., Noh, A., & Kim, S. (2014). Perfectionism and motivation of adolescents in academic contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 711–729. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00358....
 
3.
Borsboom, D., Mellenbergh, G. J., & van Heerden, J. (2003). The theoretical status of latent variables. Psychological Review, 110, 203–219. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
 
4.
Brandt, M. J., IJzerman, H., Dijksterhuis, A., Farach, F. J., Geller, J., Giner-Sorolla, R., Grange, J. A., Perugini, M., Spies, J. R., & van ’t Veer, A. (2014). The replication recipe: What makes for a convincing replication? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 217–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp....
 
5.
Burka, J. B., & Yuen, L. M. (1983). Procrastination: Why you do it, what to do about it. Addison-Wesley.
 
6.
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001a). New general self-efficacy scale [Database record]. Retrieved from PsycTESTS. https://doi.org/10.1037/t08800....
 
7.
Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001b). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods, 4, 62–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/109442....
 
8.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.
 
9.
Crandall, C. S., & Sherman, J. W. (2016). On the scientific superiority of conceptual replications for scientific progress. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 66, 93–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp....
 
10.
Drillinger, M. (2019, October 18). 7 steps to breaking the ‘perfectionism, procrastination, paralysis’ cycle. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/hea....
 
11.
Flett, G. L., Hewitt, P. L., Davis, R. A., & Sherry, S. B. (2004). Description and counseling of the perfectionistic procrastinator. In H. C. Schouwenburg, C. H. Lay, A. Pychyl, & J. R. Ferrari (Eds.), Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings (pp. 181–194). American Psychological Association.
 
12.
Foster, J. F. (2007). Procrastination and perfectionism: Connections, understandings, and control. Gifted Education International, 23, 264–272. https://doi.org/10.1177/026142....
 
13.
Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, 449–468. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0117....
 
14.
Gelman, A., & Loken, E. (2014). The statistical crisis in science. American Scientist, 102, 460–465. https://doi.org/10.1511/2014.1....
 
15.
Glick, D. M., Millstein, D. J., & Orsillo, S. M. (2014). A preliminary investigation of the role of psychological inflexibility in academic procrastination. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 3, 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs....
 
16.
Haig, B. D., & Evers, C. W. (2015). Realist inquiry in social science. Sage.
 
17.
Hewitt, P. L., & Flett, G. L. (1991). Perfectionism in the self and social contexts: Conceptualization, assessment, and association with psychopathology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 456–470. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
18.
Jacobs, D. R. (2014, May 20). Breaking the perfectionism–procrastination infinite loop. Web Standards Sherpa. http://webstandardssherpa.com/....
 
19.
Jadidi, F., Mohammadkhani, S., & Tajrishi, K. Z. (2011). Perfectionism and academic procrastination. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 534–537. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
20.
Kim, A., & Cha, J. (1996). General self-efficacy and its measurement. Winter Conference of Korean Industrial and Organizational Psychological Association.
 
21.
Kim, H., Kim, H., Lee, W. K., Han, S., Carlbring, P., & Rozental, A. (2020). Assessing procrastination in Korean: a study of the translation and validation of the Pure Procrastination Scale and a reexamination of the Irrational Procrastination Scale in a student and community sample. Cogent Psychology, 7, 1809844. https://doi.org/10.1080/233119....
 
22.
Kim, K. R., & Seo, E. H. (2015). The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: a meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
23.
Kim, S., & Hagtvet, K. A. (2003). The impact of misspecified item parceling on representing latent variables in covariance structure modeling: a simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 10, 101–127. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328....
 
24.
Klein, R. A., Vianello, M., Hasselman, F., Adams, B. G., Adams, R. B., Alper, S., Aveyard, M., Axt, J. R., Babalola, M. T., Bahník, Š., Batra, R., Berkics, M., Bernstein, M. J., Berry, D. R., Bialobrzeska, O., Binan, E. D., Bocian, K., Brandt, M. J., Busching, R., … Nosek, B. A. (2018). Many labs 2: Investigating variation in replicability across samples and settings. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 443–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/251524....
 
25.
Knaus, B. (2010, March 12). Break a perfectionism-procrastination connection. Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com....
 
26.
Lakens, D., Scheel, A. M., & Isager, P. M. (2018). Equivalence testing for psychological research: a tutorial. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 259–269. https://doi.org/10.1177/251524....
 
27.
Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6....
 
28.
Maxwell, S. E., Cole, D. A., & Mitchell, M. A. (2011). Bias in cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal mediation: Partial and complete mediation under an autoregressive model. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 816–841. https://doi.org/10.1080/002731....
 
29.
McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: a unified treatment. Psychology Press.
 
30.
Nosek, B. A., Ebersole, C. R., DeHaven, A. C., & Mellor, D. T. (2018). The preregistration revolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115, 2600–2606. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1....
 
31.
Nosek, B. A., Spies, J. R., & Motyl, M. (2012). Scientific utopia: II. Restructuring incentives and practices to promote truth over publishability. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 615–631. https://doi.org/10.1177/174569....
 
32.
O’Laughlin, K. D., Martin, M. J., & Ferrer, E. (2018). Cross-sectional analysis of longitudinal mediation processes. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 53, 375–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/002731....
 
33.
Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2000). Academic procrastinators and perfectionistic tendencies among graduate students. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 15, 103–109.
 
34.
Open Science Collaboration (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349, aac4716–aac4716. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
 
35.
Padilla, M. A., & Divers, J. (2016). A comparison of composite reliability estimators. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76, 436–453. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316....
 
36.
Park, Y. S., & Kim, U. (2006). Family, parent-child relationship, and academic achievement in Korea. In U. Kim, K. S. Yang, & K. K. Hwang (Eds.), Indigenous and cultural psychology (pp. 421–443). Springer.
 
37.
R Core Team (2018). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/.
 
38.
Raykov, T. (1997). Estimation of composite reliability for congeneric measures. Applied Psychological Measurement, 21, 173–184. https://doi.org/10.1177/014662....
 
39.
Raykov, T. (2004). Behavioral scale reliability and measurement invariance evaluation using latent variable modeling. Behavior Therapy, 35, 299–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-....
 
40.
Rohrer, J. M. (2018). Thinking clearly about correlations and causation: Graphical causal models for observational data. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 27–42. https://doi.org/10.1177/251524....
 
41.
Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: an R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v....
 
42.
Rozental, A., Shafran, R., Wade, T., Egan, S., Nordgren, L. B., Carlbring, P., Landström, A., Roos, S., Skoglund, M., Thelander, E., Trosell, L., Örtenholm, A., & Andersson, G. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 95, 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat....
 
43.
Savalei, V., & Reise, S. P. (2019). Don’t forget the model in your model-based reliability coefficients: a reply to McNeish (2018). Collabra: Psychology, 5, 36. https://doi.org/10.1525/collab....
 
44.
Scherbaum, C. A., Cohen-Charash, Y., & Kern, M. J. (2006). Measuring general self-efficacy: a comparison of three measures using item response theory. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66, 1047–1063. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316....
 
45.
Schouwenburg, H. C., Lay, C. H., Pychyl, T. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2004). Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings. American Psychological Association.
 
46.
Seo, E. H. (2008). Self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and academic procrastination. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 36, 753–764. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.20....
 
47.
Silberzahn, R., Uhlmann, E. L., Martin, D. P., Anselmi, P., Aust, F., Awtrey, E., Bahník, Š., Bai, F., Bannard, C., Bonnier, E., Carlsson, R., Cheung, F., Christensen, G., Clay, R., Craig, M. A., Dalla Rosa, A., Dam, L., Evans, M. H., Flores Cervantes, I., … Nosek, B. A. (2018). Many analysts, one data set: Making transparent how variations in analytic choices affect results. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 337–356. https://doi.org/10.1177/251524....
 
48.
Simmons, J. P., Nelson, L. D., & Simonsohn, U. (2011). False-positive psychology: Undisclosed flexibility in data collection and analysis allows presenting anything as significant. Psychological Science, 22, 1359–1366. https://doi.org/10.1177/095679....
 
49.
Simonsohn, U. (2018). Two lines: a valid alternative to the invalid testing of U-shaped relationships with quadratic regressions. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1, 538–555. https://doi.org/10.1177/251524....
 
50.
Sirois, F. M., & Molnar, D. S. (2016). Conceptualizations of perfectionism, health, and well-being: an introductory overview. In F. M. Sirois & D. S. Molnar (Eds.), Perfectionism, health, and well-being (pp. 1–21). Springer International Publishing.
 
51.
Sirois, F. M., Molnar, D. S., & Hirsch, J. K. (2017). A meta-analytic and conceptual update on the associations between procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism. European Journal of Personality, 31, 137–159. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.20....
 
52.
Smith, M. M., Saklofske, D. H., Stoeber, J., & Sherry, S. B. (2016). The big three perfectionism scale: a new measure of perfectionism. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34, 670–687. https://doi.org/10.1177/073428....
 
53.
Smith, M. M., Sherry, S. B., Saklofske, D. H., & Mushqaush, A. R. (2017). Clarifying the perfectionism-procrastination relationship using a 7-day, 14-occasion daily diary study. Personality and Individual Differences, 112, 117–123. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
54.
Solomon, L. J., & Rothblum, E. D. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503–509. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0....
 
55.
Steel, P. (2007). The nature of procrastination: a meta-analytic and theoretical review of quintessential self-regulatory failure. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 65–94. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2....
 
56.
Steel, P., & Klingsieck, K. B. (2016). Academic procrastination: Psychological antecedents revisited. Australian Psychologist, 51, 36–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.121....
 
57.
Stoeber, J. (2017). The psychology of perfectionism: an introduction. In J. Stoeber (Ed.), The psychology of perfectionism (pp. 3–16). Routledge.
 
58.
Stoeber, J., & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 295–319. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327....
 
59.
Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Impact of conceptions of ability on self-regulatory mechanisms and complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 407–415. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
60.
Xie, Y., Yang, J., & Chen, F. (2018). Procrastination and multidimensional perfectionism: a meta-analysis of main, mediating, and moderating effects. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 46, 395–408. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.66....
 
61.
Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197–206. https://doi.org/10.1086/651257.
 
62.
Zwaan, R. A., Etz, A., Lucas, R. E., & Donnellan, M. B. (2018). Making replication mainstream. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 41, E120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S01405....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192