Assessment of the factorial and criterion validity of the General Charisma Inventory in a Spanish-speaking sample
More details
Hide details
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, Warsaw, Poland
University of Lleida, Lleida, Spain
Submission date: 2020-09-21
Final revision date: 2020-12-15
Acceptance date: 2020-12-28
Online publication date: 2021-01-26
Publication date: 2021-03-31
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2021;9(1):84–95
Charisma can be understood as a personality trait that allows one to influence other people. Research on charisma has predomi-nately focused on leadership, but it can also be successfully studied in the general population. The General Charisma Inventory (GCI) has not yet been analysed in different cultures. The current study represents the first attempt to examine and validate this instrument in a Spanish-speaking population.

Participants and procedure:
The GCI was administered in a series of three studies to a large adult community sample (N1 = 756, N2 = 96, N3 = 149). A multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to verify the structure of the GCI. Factorial and criterion validity was examined in the context of well-being and the Dark Triad traits. Measurement invariance across age and gender of the GCI in a Spanish-speaking sample was also analysed.

The results confirmed the hypothesised two-factorial structure and therefore the Spanish version of the GCI is a structurally valid and reliable measure, and its dimensions relate to different outcomes such as well-being and the Dark Triad.

The Spanish GCI could be used in general research on charisma and applied to a wide range of age groups within the Spanish-speaking context, providing economic screening for research and practice.

Antonakis, J. (2012). Transformational and charismatic leadership. In D. V. Day & J. Antonakis (Eds.), The na-ture of leadership (2nd edition, pp. 256–288). Sage.
Antonakis, J., Bastardoz, N., Jacquart, P., & Shamir, B. (2016). Charisma: an ill-defined and ill-measured gift. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 293–319.
Back, M. D., Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2010). Why are narcissists so charming at the first sight? Decoding the narcissism-popularity link at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 132–145.
Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equa-tion Modeling, 14, 464–504.
Cohen, N., & Arieli, T. (2011). Field research in conflict environments: Methodological challenges and snowball sampling. Journal of Peace Research, 48, 423–435.
Diener, E. D. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. Amer-ican Psychologist, 55, 34–43.
Echeverria, G., Torres, M., Pedrals, N., Padilla, O., Rigorri, A., & Bitran, M. (2017). Validation of a Spanish ver-sion of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form questionnaire. Psicothema, 29, 96–102.
Fatfouta, R. (2018). Facets of narcissism and leadership: A tale of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde? Human Resource Management Review, 29, 100669.
Fernández Vítores, D. (2017). El Español: Una lengua viva [Spanish: a living language]. Instituto Cervantes. Retrieved from:
Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 77–83.
Friedman, H. S., Prince, L. M., Riggio, R. E., & DiMatteo, M. R. (1980). Understanding and assessing nonverbal expressiveness: The Affective Communication Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 333–351.
Galvin, B. M., Waldman, D. A., & Balthazard, P. (2010). Visionary communication qualities as mediators of the relationship between narcissism and attributions of leader charisma. Personnel Psychology, 63, 509–537.
Gregorich, S. E. (2006). Do self-report instruments allow meaningful comparisons across diverse population groups? Testing measurement invariance using the confirmatory factor analysis framework. Medical Care, 44, 78–94.
Hermalin, B. E. (1998). Toward an economic theory of leadership: Leading by example. The American Econom-ic Review, 88, 1188–1206.
House, R. J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership: The cutting edge (pp. 189–207). Southern Illinois University Press.
International Test Commission (2017). ITC Guidelines for translating and adapting tests (2nd edition). ITC.
Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): a brief-measure of dark personali-ty traits. Assessment, 21, 28–41.
Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2017). Duplicity among the Dark Triad: Three faces of deceit. Journal of Person-ality and Social Psychology, 113, 329–342.
Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2014). The Polish adaptation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 104–109.
Keating, C. F. (2002). Charismatic faces: Social status cues put face appeal in context. In G. Rhodes & L. A. Zebrowitz (Eds.), Facial attractiveness (pp.153–192). Ablex.
Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.
Keyes, C. L. M. (2005). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 539–548.
Kowalski, C. M., Kwiatkowska, K., Kwiatkowska, M. M., Ponikiewska, K., Rogoza, R. & Schermer, J. A. (2018a). The Dark Triad traits and intelligence: Machiavellians are bright, and narcissists and psychopaths are ordinary. Personality and Individual Differences, 135, 1–6.
Kowalski, C. M., Rogoza, R., Vernon, P. A., & Schermer, J. A. (2018b). The Dark Triad and the self-presentation variables of socially desirable responding and self-monitoring. Personality and Individual Differences, 120, 234–237.
Kowalski, C. M., Vernon, P. A., & Schermer, J. A. (2017). Vocational interests and dark personality: Are there dark career choices? Personality and Individual Differences, 103, 43–47.
Longo, Y., Jovanović, V., Sampaio de Carvalho, J., & Karaś, D. (2017). The general factor of well-being: Multi-national evidence using bifactor ESEM on the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. Assessment, 27, 596–606.
Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58, 525–543.
Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., Padilla, J. L., & Hambleton, R. K. (2016). Test adaptation standards for cross-lingual as-sessment. In C. S. Wells & M. Faulkner-Bond (Eds.), Educational measurement. From foundations to future (pp. 291–304). The Guilford Press.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2014). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Muthén & Muthén.
O’Boyle, E. H., Forsyth, D. R., Banks, G. C., & McDaniels, M. A. (2012). A meta-analysis of the Dark Triad and work behavior: a social exchange perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97, 557–579.
Ong, C. W., Roberts, R., Arthur, C. A., Woodman, T., & Akehurst, S. (2016). The leadership is sinking: a temporal investigation of narcissistic leadership. Journal of Personality, 84, 237–247.
Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Toward a taxonomy of dark personalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 421–426.
Paulhus, D. L., & Williams, K. M. (2002). The Dark Triad of personality: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556–563.
Persson, B. N., Kajonius, P. J., & Garcia, D. (2017). Revisiting the structure of the Short Dark Triad. Assessment, 26, 3–16.
Pineda, D., Sandin, B., & Muris, P. (2020). Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of two Dark Triad scales: The Dirty Dozen and the Short Dark Triad. Current Psychology, 39, 1873–1881.
Rauthmann, J. F., & Kolar, G. P. (2013). The perceived attractiveness and traits of the Dark Triad: Narcissists are perceived as hot, Machiavellians and psychopaths not. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 582–586.
Riggio, R. E. (2009). Charisma. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), Encyclopedia of positive psychology (pp. 141–144). Black-well.
Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbuer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 1–25.
Rogoza, R., & Cieciuch, J. (2017). Structural investigation of the Short Dark Triad questionnaire in Polish popu-lation. Current Psychology, 38, 756–763.
Rogoza, R., & Cieciuch, J. (2020). Dark Triad traits and their structure: an empirical approach. Current Psy-chology, 39, 1287–1302.
Rogoza, R., Danieluk, B., Kowalski, C. M., Kwiatkowska, K., & Kwiatkowska, M. M. (2020). Making and main-taining relationships through the prism of the Dark Triad traits: a longitudinal social network study. Journal of Personality.
Rogoza, R., & Fatfouta, R. (2020). Decoding the narcissism-charisma link: a facet approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 156, 109774.
Rogoza, R., Kowalski, C. M., & Schermer, J. A. (2019). Dark Triad traits within the framework of the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits Model. Journal of Individual Differences, 40, 168–176.
Rogoza, R., Truong, T. K. H., Różycka-Tran, J., Piotrowski, J., & Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2018a). Psychomet-ric properties of the MHC-SF: an integration of the existing measurement approaches. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 74, 1742–1758.
Rogoza, R., Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Campbel, W. K. (2018b). Measurement of narcissism: From classical applications to modern approaches. Studia Psychologica, 1, 27–48.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: a review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1069–1081.
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8, 23–74.
Trahair, C., Baran, L., Flakus, M., Kowalski, C. M., & Rogoza, R. (2020). The structure of the Dark Triad traits: a network analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 167, 110265.
Tskhay, K. O., Zhu, R., Zou, C., & Rule, N. O. (2018). Charisma in everyday life: Conceptualization and valida-tion of the General Charisma Inventory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114, 131–152.
Vogt, W. P., & Johnson, B. (2011). Dictionary of statistics and methodology: a nontechnical guide for the so-cial sciences. Sage.
Waterman, A. S. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: a eudaimonist’s perspective. The Journal of Positive Psy-chology, 3, 234–252.
Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. The Free Press.
Whitney, K., Sagrestano, L. M., & Maslach, C. (1994). Establishing the social impact of individuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 1140–1153.
Wojciszke, B., & Szlendak, M. (2010). Scales measuring agency and communion. Psychologia Społeczna, 5, 57–70.
Young, S. M., & Pinsky, D. (2006). Narcissism and celebrity. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 463–471.
Zajenkowski, M., & Czarna, A. Z. (2015). What makes narcissists unhappy? Subjectively assessed intelligence moderates the relationship between narcissism and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Dif-ferences, 77, 50–54.
Zajenkowski, M., Czarna, A. Z., Szymaniak, K., & Dufner, M. (2020). What do highly narcissistic people think and feel about (their) intelligence? Journal of Personality, 88, 703–718.