“Personality in prison uniform”. The influence of personality on building work engagement, applying job crafting strategies and well-being among prison officers
More details
Hide details
The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2021-06-18
Final revision date: 2021-08-04
Acceptance date: 2021-08-10
Online publication date: 2022-03-06
Numerous studies have been devoted to analyzing the negative effects of occupational stress on the mental health of prison officers. Less attention is paid to positive mechanisms, as postulated by positive psychology. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between personality traits and the strategies used by prison officers to build engagement, and professional well-being by adjusting the workplace to their strengths, skills and professional preferences.

Participants and procedure:
Two hundred eighty prison officers, aged 22 to 52, participated in the study (26% female). The following measurement tools were used: a personality scale (IPIP-BFM-20), the Job Crafting Questionnaire (PP), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) and the Workplace Well-being Questionnaire (KDMP).

Personality traits such as extraversion, conscientiousness and intellect determine the type of job crafting strategies used, specifically increasing structural resources and increasing challenges, while extraversion and conscientiousness were important for building work engagement, particularly dedication at work, and the levels of well-being at work. The influence of the variable intellect was also found to be significant.

The collected evidence indicates that there are organizational constraints to personality expression at work and its impact on key organizational behaviors and well-being at work. It also indicates the use of job crafting strategies to build work engagement.

Akhtar, R., Boustani, L., Tsivrikos, D., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2015). The engageable personality: Personality and trait EI as predictors of work engagement. Personality and Individual Differences, 73, 44–49.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 309–328.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). The job demands-resources theory: Taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22, 273–285.
Bakker, A. B., Tims, M., & Derks, D. (2012). Proactive personality and job performance: The role of job crafting and work engagement. Human Relations, 65, 1359–1378.
Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L., & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20, 4–28.
Brown, S. P., & Leigh, T. W. (1996). A new look at psychological climate and its relationship to job involvement, effort, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 358–368.
Chirkowska-Smolak, T., & Grobelny, J. (2015). Człowiek na rynku pracy. Wyzwania i zagrożenia [Man on the labour market. Challenges and threats]. Libron.
Czarnota-Bojarska, J. (2010). Dopasowanie człowiek-organizacja i tożsamość organizacyjna [Human-organizational fit and organizational identity]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
Czarnota-Bojarska, J., & Andersz, N. (2020). Cechy intelektu i osobowości w przewidywaniu funkcjonowania pracowników [Intellect and personality traits in predicting employee performance]. In B. Rożnowski & P. Fortuna (Eds.), Psychologia biznesu (pp. 67–77). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Czerw, A. (2017). Psychologiczny model dobrostanu w pracy [A psychological model of well-being at work]. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
de Devotto, R. P., & Wechsler, S. M. (2019). Job crafting interventions: systematic review. Trends in Psychology, 27, 371–383.
DeYoung, C. G., Quilty, L. C., & Peterson, J. B. (2007). Between facets and domains: 10 aspects of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 880–896.
Field, A. (2013) Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics (4th ed.). Sage.
Gordon, M. (2014). Personality of correction officers and their attitudes towards resocialization tasks. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 2, 118–132.
Grant, A. M., Christianson, M. K., & Price, R. H. (2007). Happiness, health, or relationships? Managerial practices and employee well-being tradeoffs. Academy of Management Perspectives, 21, 51–63.
Jain, A. K., Giga, S. I., & Cooper, C. L. (2009). Employee well-being, control and organizational commitment. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 30, 256–273.
Jones, A., Norman, C. S., & Wier, B. (2010). Healthy lifestyle as a coping mechanism for role stress in public accounting. Behavioral Research in Accounting, 22, 21–41.
Kasprzak, E., Michalak, M., & Minda, M. (2017). The Job Crafting Questionnaire: Polish adaptation. Social Psychological Bulletin 43, 459–475.
Kooij, D. T. A. M., van Woerkom, M., Wilkenloh, J., Dorenbosch, L., & Denissen, J. J. (2017). Job crafting towards strenghts and interests. The effect of a job crafting intervention on person job fit and the role of age. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 971–981.
Langelaan, S., Bakker, A. B., van Doornen, L. J. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement: Do individual differences make a difference? Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 521–532.
Mansell, A., Brough, P., & Coles, K. (2006). Stable predictors of job satisfaction, psychological strain, and employee retention: a longitudinal evaluation in the New Zealand Customs Service. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 84–107.
Mróz, J., & Kaleta, K. (2016). Relationships between personality, emotional labor, work engagement and job satisfaction in service professions. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 29, 767–782.
Obidoa, C., Reeves, D., Warren, N., Reisine, S., & Cherniack, M. (2011). Depression and work family conflict among corrections officers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 53, 1294–1301.
Park, Y., Lim, D. H., Kim, W., & Kang, H. (2020). Organizational support and adaptive performance: The revolving structural relationships between job crafting, work engagement, and adaptive performance. Sustainability, 12, 4872.
Peral, S. L., & Geldenhuys, M. (2020). The indirect relationship between personality and performance through job crafting behavior. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 46, 1715.
Piotrowski, A. (2012). Jakość życia i satysfakcja funkcjonariuszy Służby Więziennej [Quality of life and satisfaction of prison officers]. Przegląd Więziennictwa Polskiego, 74–75, 107–138.
Piotrowski, A., Boe, O., Rawat, S., & Deshpande, A. P. (2020a). Organizational climate, organizational support and citizenship behavior in the army. Scientific Journal of the Military University of Land Forces, 52, 698–713.
Piotrowski, A., Sygit-Kowalkowska, E., & Hamzah, I. (2020b). Work engagement among prison officers. The role of individual and organizational factors in the Polish and Indonesian penitentiary system. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 8206.
Porczyńska-Ciszewska, A., & Kraczla, M. (2017). Osobowość jako czynnik determinujący dobrostan psychiczny człowieka [Personality as a determinant of human psychological well-being]. Humanum. Międzynarodowe Studia Społeczno-Humanistyczne, 25, 101–117.
Roberts, B. W., Chernyshenko, O. S., Stark, S., & Goldberg, L. R. (2005). The structure of conscientiousness: an empirical investigation based on seven major personality questionnaires. Personnel Psychology, 58, 103–139.
Robledo, E., Zappala, S., & Topa, G. (2019). Job crafting as a mediator between work engagement and wellbeing outcomes: a time-lagged study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16, 1376.
Roczniewska, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2016). Who seeks job resources, and who avoids job demands? The link between dark personality traits and job crafting. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 150, 1026–1045.
Roczniewska, M., & Retowski, S. (2016). Polska adaptacja Skali Przekształcania Pracy [Polish adaptation of the Job Crafting Scale]. Manuscript in preparation.
Rogala, A., & Cieślak, R. (2019). A job crafting measure: Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Job Crafting Scale. Medycyna Pracy, 70, 445–457.
Salanova, M., Schaufeli, W. B., Xanthopoulou, D., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). The gain spiral of resources and work engagement: Sustaining a positive worklife. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: a handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 118–131). Psychology Press.
Schmutte, P. S., & Ryff, C. D. (1997). Personality and well-being: Reexamining methods and meanings. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 549–559.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). UWES. Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary Manual. Version 1.1, December 2004. Retrieved from
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Defining and measuring work engagement: Bringing clarity to the concept. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: a handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 10–24). Psychology Press.
Seibert, S. E., & Kraimer, M. L. (2001). The five-factor model of personality and career success. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 1–21.
Shuck, B., & Reio, T. G. (2014). Employee engagement and well-being: a moderation model and implications for practice. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 21, 43–58.
Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., & Rowiński, T. (2011). The circular model of personality traits structure in Goldberg’s proposal. Studia Psychologica, 11, 65–93.
Sygit-Kowalkowska, E., Piotrowski, A., & Hamzah, I. (2021). Insomnia among prison officers and its relationship with occupational burnout: The role of coping with stress in Polish and Indonesian samples. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18, 4282.
Sygit-Kowalkowska, E., Weber-Rajek, M., Herkt, M., & Ossowski, R. (2017). Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics. Medycyna Pracy, 68, 85–95.
Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign. Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1–9.
Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 230–240.
Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2015). Job crafting and job performance: a longitudinal study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 24, 914–928.
Topolewska, E., Skimina, E., Strus, W., Cieciuch, J., & Rowiński, T. (2014). The short IPIP-BFM-20 questionnaire for measuring the Big Five. Annals of Psychology, 17, 385–402.
Wrzesniewski, A., & Dutton, J. E. (2001). Crafting a job: Revisioning employees as active crafters of their work. Academy of Management Review, 26, 179–201.
van Wingerden, J., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2017). Fostering employee well-being via a job crafting intervention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 100, 164–174.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., & Fischbach, A. (2013). Work engagement among employees facing emotional demands: The role of personal resources. Journal of Personality Psychology, 12, 74–84.