Temperament and chronotype among academic athletes – perspective of the regulative theory of temperament
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Submission date: 2016-11-13
Final revision date: 2017-02-06
Acceptance date: 2017-06-02
Online publication date: 2017-07-17
Publication date: 2018-02-01
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2018;6(1):79–90
The aim of the research was to evaluate the relationship between chronotype and temperamental traits and temperament structure specified in the Regulative Theory of Temperament among physical education students who are actively engaged in sport. The analyses were performed separately in groups of men, women, and individual and team sports representatives.

Participants and procedure
The study included 157 participants (women n = 35, men n = 122; individual sports n = 88 and team sports n = 69). Measures used in the study were the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ).

Among women and men chronotype was positively correlated with Briskness (BR) and Endurance (EN). In women chronotype was negatively related to Emotional Reactivity (ER). Sensory Sensitivity (SS) was positively associated with chronotype in men. In the individual sport group chronotype was associated with four temperamental traits: BR, EN, ER (negatively) and SS. Activity (AC) significantly correlated with chronotype in the team sport group. Two out of three indicators of temperament structure – potential for stimulation processing (MPS) and structure harmony parameter (Zh1) – were related to chronotype in both genders.

The results obtained in the present research indicate that temperament is significantly related to chronotype. Evening chronotype men and women might be overstimulated and morning types might be understimulated. These data might be useful for coaches and provide a guide for further individualization of the training process.
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