RESEARCH PAPER
Narcissism, activity on Facebook, and conspicuous consumption among young adults
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Education, University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
Submission date: 2021-04-13
Final revision date: 2021-07-28
Acceptance date: 2021-07-30
Online publication date: 2021-10-14
Publication date: 2022-03-01
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2022;10(1):21–31
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The purpose of the study was to explore relationships between narcissistic strategies, self-oriented activity on Facebook, and conspicuous consumption.

Material and methods:
The sample consisted of 323 young Polish adults. Participants completed the Conspicuous Consumption Scale (CCS), the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ), and questions regarding Facebook use.

Results:
Empirical support was found for the assumption that conspicuous consumption was predicted by narcissistic rivalry. Although the direct impact of narcissistic admiration on conspicuous consumption was non-significant, this strategy influenced status consumption through self-verified behaviours on social media, the strongest predictor of conspicuous consumption.

Conclusions:
This shows that narcissistic rivalry directly affects the propensity to conspicuous consumption and narcissistic admiration is related to self-verified activity on Facebook. The involvement of Facebook usage in this manner increases the acquisition and display of expensive, glamorous products as external signals of status.

 
REFERENCES (81)
1.
Ackerman, R., Witt, E., Donnellan, M., Trzesniewski, K., Robins, R., & Kashy, D. (2011). What does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory really measure? Assessment, 18, 67–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319....
 
2.
Amaldoss, W., & Jain, S. (2005). Conspicuous consumption and sophisticated thinking. Management Science, 51, 1449–1466. https://doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1....
 
3.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition: DSM-5. APA.
 
4.
Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addb....
 
5.
Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim, T., Brunborg, G. S., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a Facebook addiction scale. Psychological Reports, 110, 501–517. https://doi.org/10.2466/02.09.....
 
6.
Amatulli, C., Guido, G., & Nataraajan, R. (2015). Luxury purchasing among older consumers: Exploring inferences about cognitive age, status, and style motivations. Journal of Business Research, 68, 1945–1952. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbus....
 
7.
Back, M. D., Küfner, A. C. P., Dufner, M., Gerlach, T. M., Rauthmann, J. F., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2013). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: Disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 1013–1037. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00344....
 
8.
Bergman, S. M., Fearrington, M. E., Davenport, S. W., & Bergman, J. Z. (2011). Millennials, narcissism, and social networking: What narcissists do on social networking sites and why. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 706–711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
9.
Berger, J., & Ward, M. (2010). Subtle signals of inconspicuous consumption. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 555–569. https://doi.org/10.1086/655445.
 
10.
Brown, R., Budzek, K., & Tamborski, M. (2009). On the meaning and measure of narcissism. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 951–964. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616....
 
11.
Buffardi, L. E., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Narcissism and social networking Web sites. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1303–1314. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146....
 
12.
Byrne, B. M. (2016). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Routledge.
 
13.
Carpenter, C. J. (2012). Narcissism on Facebook: Self-promotional and anti-social behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 482–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
14.
Central Statistical Office (2019). Demographic yearbook of Poland, 2019. Retrieved from https://stat.gov.pl/obszary-te....
 
15.
Charles, K. K., Hurst, E., & Roussanov, N. (2009). Conspicuous consumption and race. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 124, 425–467. https://doi.org/10.1162/qjec.2....
 
16.
Chaudhuri, H. R., & Mazumdar, S. (2006). Of diamonds and desires: Understanding conspicuous consumption from a contemporary marketing perspective. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 11, 1–18.
 
17.
Chaudhuri, H. R, & Mazumdar, S. (2010). Conspicuous consumption: Is that all bad? Investigating the alternative paradigm. The Journal for Decision Makers, 35, 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/025609....
 
18.
Christofides, E., Muise, A., & Desmarais, S. (2012). Hey Mom, what’s on your Facebook? Comparing Facebook disclosure and privacy in adolescents and adults. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 48–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/194855....
 
19.
Chung, E., & Fischer, E. (2001). When conspicuous consumption becomes inconspicuous: The case of the migrant Hong Kong consumers. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18, 474–488. https://doi.org/10.1108/073637....
 
20.
Cunningham-Kim, M. A., & Darke, P. (2011). Because I’m worth it (and you’re not): Separating the effects of narcissism and self-esteem on prestige purchases. In D. W. Dahl, G. V. Johar, & S. M. J. van Osselaer (Eds.), Advances in Consumer Research (Vol. 38, pp. 895–897). Association for Consumer Research.
 
21.
Das, M., & Jebarajakirthy, C. (2020). Impact of acculturation to western culture (AWC) on western fashion luxury consumption among Gen-Y consumers in the Asia-Pacific region. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 56, 102179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jret... onser.2020.102179.
 
22.
Davenport, S. W., Bergman, S. M., Bergman, J. Z., & Fearrington, M. E. (2014). Twitter versus Facebook: Exploring the role of narcissism in the motives and usage of different social media platforms. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 212–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
23.
Dickinson, K. A., & Pincus, A. L. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. Journal of Personality Disorder, 17, 188–207. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1....
 
24.
Dixit, N., Patel, A., & Tiwari, S. (2015). The effect of narcissism on mental well-being in middle aged people. Indian Journal of Social Science Researches, 12, 31–34.
 
25.
Efendioglu, I. (2019). The Impact of conspicuous consumption in social media on purchasing intentions. Journal of Business Research-Turk, 11, 2176–2190. https://doi.org/10.20491/isard....
 
26.
Foster, J. D., Campbell, W. K., & Twenge, J. M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism: Inflated self‐views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 469–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-....
 
27.
Friehe, T., & Mechtel, M. (2014). Conspicuous consumption and political regimes: Evidence from East and West Germany. European Economic Review, 67, 62–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euro....
 
28.
Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J. E. (2016). “Selfie-ists” or “narci-selfiers”? A cross-lagged panel analysis of selfie taking and narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 98–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
29.
Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/107055....
 
30.
Kastanakis, M. N., & Balabanis, G. (2012). Between the mass and the class: Antecedents of the “bandwagon” luxury consumption behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65, 1399–1407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbus....
 
31.
Kastanakis, M. N., & Balabanis, G. (2014). Exploration variation in conspicuous luxury consumption: an individual differences’ perspective. Journal of Business Research, 67, 2147–2154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbus....
 
32.
Kaus, W. (2013). Conspicuous consumption and “race”: Evidence from South Africa. Journal of Development Economics, 100, 63–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdev....
 
33.
Khamis, M., Prakash, N., & Siddique, Z. (2012). Consumption and social identity: Evidence from India. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 83, 353–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo....
 
34.
Kim, D., & Jang, S. (2014). Motivational drivers for status consumption: a study of Generation Y consumers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 38, 39–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm....
 
35.
Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford Publications.
 
36.
KPMG (2020). The luxury goods market in Poland. Retrieved from https://assets.kpmg/content/da....
 
37.
Krause, H. V., Wagner, A., Krasnova, H., Deters, F., Baumann, A., & Buxmann, P. (2019). Keeping up with the Joneses: Instagram use and its influence on conspicuous consumption. ICIS.
 
38.
Lambert, A., Desmond, J., & O’Donohoe, S. (2014). Narcissism and the consuming self: an exploration of consumer identity projects and narcissistic tendencies. Consumer Culture Theory. Research in Consumer Behavior, 16, 35–57. https://doi.org/10.1108/S0885-....
 
39.
Lee, S. J., & Kim, R. (2020). A comparative study of conspicuous consumption behavior upon Instagram and real life. Journal of Digital Convergence, 18, 205–220. https://doi.org/10.14400/JDC.2....
 
40.
Lee, S. Y., & Seidle, R. (2012). Narcissists as consumers: The effects of perceived scarcity on processing of product information. Social Behavior and Personality, 40, 1485–1500. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.20....
 
41.
Lee, S. Y., Gregg, A. P., & Park, S. H. (2013). The person in the purchase: Narcissistic consumers prefer products that positively distinguish them. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 335–352. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00327....
 
42.
Leibenstein, H. (1950). Bandwagon, snob, and Veblen effects in the theory of consumers’ demand. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 64, 183–207. https://doi.org/10.2307/188269....
 
43.
Martin, B. A. S., Jin, H. S., O’Connor, P. J., & Hughes, C. (2019). Narcissism and consumption behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 196–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
44.
Mazzocco, P. J., Rucker, D. D., Galinsky, A. M., & Andreson, E. T. (2012). Direct and vicarious conspicuous consumption: Identification with low-status groups increases the desire for high-status goods. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22, 520–528. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps....
 
45.
Mayr, S., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Faul, F. (2007). A short tutorial of GPower. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3, 51–59. https://doi.org/10.20982/tqmp.....
 
46.
McAndrew, F. T., & Jeong, H. S. (2012). Who does what on Facebook? Age, sex, and relationship status as predictors of Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 2359–2365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
47.
McCain, J. L., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Narcissism and social media use: a meta-analytic review. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 7, 308–327. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm000....
 
48.
Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-presentation 2.0: Narcissism and self-esteem on Facebook. Cyberspychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.....
 
49.
Miller, J., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism. Journal of Personality, 76, 449–476. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
 
50.
Moon, J. H., Lee, E., Lee, J. A., Choi, T. R., & Sung, Y. (2016). The role of narcissism in self-promotion on Instagram. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 22–25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
51.
Niesiobędzka, M. (2017). An experimental study of the bandwagon effect in conspicuous consumption. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 6, 26–33. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
52.
O’Cass, A., & McEwen, H. (2006). Exploring consumer status and conspicuous consumption. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 4, 25–39. https://doi.org/10.1002/CB.155.
 
53.
Ordabayeva, N., & Chandon, P. (2011). Getting ahead of the Joneses: When equality increases conspicuous consumption among bottom-tier consumers. Journal of Consumer Research, 38, 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1086/65816.
 
54.
Ozimek, P., & Bierhoff, H. W. (2016). Facebook use depending on age: The influence of social comparisons. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 271–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
55.
Panek, E. T., Nardis, Y., & Konrath, S. (2013). Mirror or megaphone? How relationships between narcissism and social networking site use differ on Facebook and Twitter. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 2004–2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
56.
Pilch, I., & Górnik-Durose, M. E. (2017). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, materialism, money attitudes, and consumption preferences. The Journal of Psychology, 151, 185–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/002239....
 
57.
Podoshen, J. S., Li, L., & Zhang, J. (2011). Materialism and conspicuous consumption in China: a cross-cultural examination. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 35, 17–25. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/j..... 00930.x.
 
58.
Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890–902. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-....
 
59.
Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. (2009). Conspicuous consumption versus utilitarian ideals: How different levels of power shape consumer behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 549–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp....
 
60.
Russ, E., Shedler, J., Bradley, B., & Westen, D. (2008). Refining the construct of narcissistic personality disorder: Diagnostic criteria and subtypes. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1473–1481.
 
62.
Ryan, T., & Xenos, S. (2011). Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1658–1664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
63.
Saad, G., & Vongas, J. G. (2009). The effect of conspicuous consumption on men’s testosterone levels. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 80–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhd....
 
64.
Sedikides, C., Rudich, E. A., Gregg, A. P., Kumashiro, M., & Rusbult, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy? Self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 400–416. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
65.
Sedikides, C., Gregg, A. P., Cisek, S., & Hart, C. M. (2007). The I that buys: Narcissists as consumers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17, 254–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1057-....
 
66.
Singh, S., Farley, S. D., & Donahue, J. J. (2018). Grandiosity on display: Social media behaviors and dimensions of narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 134, 308–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
67.
Solomon, M. (2017). How millennials will reshape the luxury market. Forbes.
 
68.
Souiden, N., M’Saad, B., & Pons, F. (2011). A cross-cultural analysis of consumers’ conspicuous consumption of branded fashion accessories. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 23, 329–343. https://doi.org/10.1080/089615....
 
69.
Taylor, D. G., & Strutton, D. (2016). Does Facebook usage lead to conspicuous consumption? The role of envy, narcissism and self-promotion. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 10, 231–248. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-0....
 
70.
Thoumrungroje, A. (2014). The Influence of social media intensity and EWOM on conspicuous consumption. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148, 7–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
71.
Thoumrungroje, A. (2018). A cross-national study of consumer spending behavior: The impact of social media intensity and materialism. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 32, 243–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/089615....
 
72.
Truong, Y., Simmons, G., McColl, R., & Kitchen, P. J. (2008). Status and conspicuousness – are they related? Strategic marketing implications for luxury brands. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 16, 189–203. https://doi.org/10.1080/096525....
 
73.
Tsai, W. S, Yang, Q., & Liu, Y. (2013). Young Chinese consumers’ snob and bandwagon luxury consumption preferences. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25, 290–304. https://doi.org/10.1080/089615....
 
74.
Veblen, T. (1899/1994). The theory of the leisure class. Macmillan.
 
75.
Vigneron, F., & Johnson, L. W. (2004). Measuring perceptions of brand luxury. Journal of Brand Management, 11, 484–506. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgra....
 
76.
Wai, L. K., & Osman, S. (2019). The influence of self-esteem in the relationship of social media usage and conspicuous consumption. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9, 335–352. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBS....
 
77.
Walters, N. T., & Horton, R. (2015). A diary study of the influence of Facebook use on narcissism among male college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 326–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.....
 
78.
Widjajanta, B., Senen, S. H., Masharyono, M., Lisnawati, L., & Anggraeni, C. P. (2018). The impact of social media usage and self-esteem on conspicuous consumption: Instagram user of Hijabers Community Bandung member. International Journal of eBusiness and eGovernment Studies, 10, 1–13.
 
79.
Wink, P. (1991). Two faces of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 590–597.
 
81.
Zhang, X., & Wang, W. (2019). Face consciousness and conspicuous luxury consumption in China. Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, 2, 63–82. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCMARS....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192