RESEARCH PAPER
Do positive emotions prompt people to be more authentic? The mediation effect of gratitude and empathy dimensions on the relationship between humility state and perceived false self
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Psychology, Institute of Pedagogy, University of Rzeszow, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Katarzyna Tomaszek   

Department of Psychology, Institute of Pedagogy, University of Rzeszow, Poland
Submission date: 2021-10-14
Final revision date: 2022-04-27
Acceptance date: 2022-04-28
Online publication date: 2022-11-14
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Gratitude, empathy and humility have been defined as personality dispositions, as complex interpersonal emotions, and as states that prompt people to be more pro-social. However, studies on the associations between these emotions and authen-ticity are scarce. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the mediation effect of gratitude and empathy on the asso-ciation between humility and perceived false identity.

Participants and procedure:
The number of participants who took part in the survey was equal to 220 university students (91% female). Students com-pleted questionnaires concerning humility (BSHS scale), gratitude (GQ scale), empathy (QCAE inventory), and perceived false self (POFS scale).

Results:
The results confirmed significant correlations between gratitude, empathy and authenticity, but not with humility. Further analysis revealed that gratitude and affective and cognitive empathy explain 9% of the perceived false identity level. The findings confirmed the mediation effect of gratitude on the associations between (1) humility and false self, (2) affective empathy and false self, but not between cognitive empathy and false self. The results also indicated that humility may in-fluence authenticity indirectly via gratitude, but not via dimensions of empathy.

Conclusions:
The findings confirm the significance of gratitude and cognitive empathy as dispositions that promote a feeling of being authentic. On the other hand, the relationship between affective empathy and false self was positive.

 
REFERENCES (61)
1.
Albrecht, K. (2015). The paradoxical power of humility: Why humility is under-rated and misunderstood. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.co... [ac-cessed January 20, 2022].
 
2.
Bialystok, L., & Kukar, P. (2018). Authenticity and empathy in education. Theory and Research in Education, 16, 23–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/147787....
 
3.
Bono, G., Emmons, R., & McCullough, M. E. (2004). Gratitude in practice and the practice of gratitude. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 464–481). John Wiley & Sons.
 
4.
Davis, D., Worthington, E. L., Hook, J., & Van Tongeren, D. R. (2012). Humility and the development and repair of social bonds: Two longitudinal studies. Self and Identity, 12, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/152988....
 
5.
Decety, J., & Fotopoulou, A. (2014). Why empathy has a beneficial impact on others in medicine: Unifying theo-ries. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 8, 457. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.....
 
6.
Depow, G. J., Francis, Z., & Inzlicht, M. (2021). The experience of empathy in everyday life. Psychological Science, 32, 1198–1213. https://doi.org/10.1177/095679....
 
7.
Derksen, F. A. W. M., Olde-Hartman, T. C., Lagro-Janssen, A. L. M., & Kramer, A. W. M. (2021). Clinical empathy in GP-training: Experiences and needs among Dutch GP-trainees. “Empathy as an element of personal growth”. Patient Education and Counseling, 104, 3016-3022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.....
 
8.
DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., Chester, D. S., & Bushman, B. J. (2016). How often does currently felt emotion predict social behavior and judgment? A meta-analytic test of two theories. Emotion Review, 8, 136–143. https://doi.org/10.1177/175407....
 
9.
Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (Eds.). (2004). The psychology of gratitude. Oxford University Press.
 
10.
Falewicz, A., & Bąk, W. (2016). Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies. Current Issues in Per-sonality Psychology, 4, 58–64. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
11.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), The psychology of gratitude (pp. 145–166). Oxford University Press.
 
12.
Frostenson, M. (2016). Humility in business: a contextual approach. Journal of Business Ethics, 138, 91–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551....
 
13.
Gurnani, R., & Sethia, S. (2019). Does receiving promote giving? Gratitude as a predictor of altruism via happiness. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 6, 992–981.
 
14.
Hall, J. A., & Schwartz, R. (2019). Empathy present and future. Journal of Social Psychology, 159, 225–243. https://doi.org/10.1080/002245....
 
15.
Harter, S., Marold, D., Whitesell, N. R., & Cobbs, G. (1996). A model of the effects of parent and peer support on adolescent false self behavior. Child Development, 67, 360–374. https://doi.org/10.2307/113181....
 
16.
Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based ap-proach. Guilford.
 
17.
Hendijani, R., & Sohrabi, B. (2019). The effect of humility on emotional and social competencies: The mediating role of judgment. Cogent Business & Management, 6, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/233119....
 
18.
Homan, K., & Hosack, L. (2019). Gratitude and the self: Amplifying the good within. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 29, 874–886. https://doi.org/10.1080/109113....
 
19.
Hua, A. Y., Wells, J. L., Brown, C. L., & Levenson, R. W. (2021). Emotional and cognitive empathy in caregivers of people with neurodegenerative disease: Relationships with caregiver mental health. Clinical Psychological Sci-ence, 9, 449–466. https://doi.org/10.1177/216770....
 
20.
Hussong, A. M., Langley, H. A., Thomas, T., Coffman, J., Halberstadt, A., Costanzo, P., & Rothenberg, W. A. (2019). Measuring gratitude in children. Journal of Positive Psychology, 14, 563–575. https://doi.org/10.1080/174397....
 
21.
Jafari, F. (2020). The mediating role of self-compassion in relation between character strengths and flourishing in college students. International Journal of Happiness and Development, 6, 76–93. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJHD.2....
 
22.
Johnson, C. R. (2019). Intellectual humility and empathy by analogy. Topoi, 38, 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11245....
 
23.
Jongman-Sereno, K. P., & Leary, M. (2020). Self-judgments of authenticity. Self and Identity, 19, 32–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/152988....
 
24.
Lasota, A., Tomaszek, K., & Bosacki, S. (2020). How to become more grateful? The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between empathy and gratitude. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
25.
Lenton, A. P., Bruder, M., Slabu, L., & Sedikides, C. (2012). How does “being real” feel? The Experience of state authenticity. Journal of Personality, 81, 276–289. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
 
26.
Kardaş, F., & Yalçin, I. (2021). The broaden-and-built theory of gratitude: Testing a model of well-being and resili-ence on Turkish college students. Participatory Educational Research, 8, 141–159. https://doi.org/10.17275/per.2....
 
27.
Kaźmierczak, M., & Karasiewicz, K. (2021). Dyadic empathy in Polish samples: Validation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index for Couples. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 9, 354–365. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
28.
Kossakowska, M., & Kwiatek, P. (2014). Polska adaptacja kwestionariusza do badania wdzięczności GQ-6 [The Polish adaptation of the Gratitude Questionnaire GQ-6]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 57, 503–514.
 
29.
Kozakevich, A. E, Shamay-Tsoory, S. G., & Hertz, U. (2021). Adaptive empathy: Empathic response selection as a dynamic, feedback-based learning process. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 706474. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.....
 
30.
Kruse, E., Chancellor, J., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2017). State humility: Measurement, conceptual validation, and in-trapersonal processes. Self and Identity, 16, 399–438. https://doi.org/10.1080/152988....
 
31.
Kruse, E., Chancellor, J., Ruberton, P. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2014). An upward spiral between gratitude and hu-mility. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5, 805–814. https://doi.org/10.1177/194855....
 
32.
Layous, K., Nelson, S. K., Kurtz, J. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2017). What triggers prosocial effort? A positive feed-back loop between positive activities, kindness, and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12, 385–398. https://doi.org/10.1080/174397....
 
33.
Li, D., Zhang, W., Li, X., Li, N., & Ye, B. (2012). Gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chi-nese adolescents: Direct, mediated, and moderated effects. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 55–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adol....
 
34.
Lishner, D. A., Steinert, S. W., & Stock, E. L. (2016). Gratitude, sympathy, and empathy. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science (pp. 1–4). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-....
 
35.
Luan, C. C., & Chen, T. H. (2020). Empathy from private or public self-consciousness in socially responsible con-sumption. Journal of Philanthropy and Marketing, 26, e1695. https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.1....
 
36.
Mestvirishvili, M., & Mestvirishvili, N. (2021). Self-control and self-consciousness: Regulation or acceleration of self-discrepancy distress? Polish Psychological Bulletin, 52, 31–39. https://doi.org/10.24425/ppb.2....
 
37.
McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: a conceptual and empirical to-pography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 112–127. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-....
 
38.
McCullough, M. E., Kilpatrick, S., Emmons, R., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Is gratitude a moral affect? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 249–266. https://doi.org/10.1037//0033-....
 
39.
Michałek-Kwiecień, J. (2020). Grandparental influence on young adult grandchildren: The role of grandparental empathy and quality of intergenerational relationships. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 8, 329–338. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
40.
Mora-Pelegrín, M., Montes-Berges, B., Aranda, M., Vázquez, M. A., & Armenteros-Martínez, E. (2021). The em-pathic capacity and the ability to regulate it: Construction and validation of the Empathy Management Scale (EMS). Healthcare, 9, 587. https://doi.org/10.3390/health....
 
41.
Nelson, J. A., Freitas, L. B. L., O’Brien, M., Calkins, S. D., Leerkes, E. M., & Marcovitch, S. (2013). Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 31, 42–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044....
 
42.
Nielsen, R., & Marrone, J. A. (2018). Humility: Our current understanding of the construct and its role in organiza-tions. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20, 805–824. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.1....
 
43.
Nowakowska, I. (2022). Volunteerism in the last year as a moderator between empathy and altruistic social value orientation: an exploratory study. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 10, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
44.
Oliveira, R., Baldé, A., Madeira, M., Ribeiro, T., & Arriaga, P. (2021). The impact of writing about gratitude on the intention to engage in prosocial behaviors during the COVID-19 outbreak. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 588691. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
 
45.
Orange, D. M. (2002). There is no outside: Empathy and authenticity in psychoanalytic process. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 19, 686–700. https://doi.org/10.1037/0736-9....
 
46.
Owens, B. P., Johnson, M. D., & Mitchell, T. R. (2013). Expressed humility in organizations: Implications for per-formance, teams, and leadership. Organization Science, 24, 1517–1538. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1....
 
47.
Reniers, R. L., Corcoran, R., Drake, R., Shryane, N. M., & Völlm, B. A. (2011). The QCAE: a questionnaire of cogni-tive and affective empathy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 84–95. https://doi.org/10.1080/002238....
 
48.
Rivera, G. N., Christy, A. G., Kim, J., Vess, M., Hicks, J. A., & Schlegel, R. J. (2019). Understanding the relationship between perceived authenticity and well-being. Review of General Psychology, 23, 113–126. https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr000....
 
49.
Roberts, A. R., Levine, E. E., & Sezer, O. (2021). Hiding success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 120, 1261–1286. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspi00....
 
50.
Rumble, A. C., Van Lange, P. A. M., & Parks, C. D. (2009). The benefits of empathy: When empathy may sustain cooperation in social dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 856–866.https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.6....
 
51.
Schultheiss, O., & Brunstein, J. (2010). Implicit motives. Oxford Scholarship Online.
 
52.
Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1998). Not all personal goals are personal: Comparing autonomous and controlled reasons as predictors of effort and attainment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 546–557. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616....
 
53.
Schoemann, A. M., Boulton, A. J., & Short, S. D. (2017). Monte Carlo power analysis for indirect effects application. Retrieved from https://schoemanna.shinyapps.i... [accessed April 20, 2022].
 
54.
Spezio, M., Peterson, G., & Roberts, R. C. (2019). Humility as openness to others: Interactive humility in the con-text of l’Arche. Journal of Moral Education, 48, 27–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/030572....
 
55.
Tangney, J. P. (2000). Humility: Theoretical perspectives, empirical findings and directions for future research. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 70–82. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2....
 
56.
Tudge, J. R. H., Freitas, L. B. L., & O’Brien, L. T. (2015). The virtue of gratitude: a developmental and cultural ap-proach. Human Development, 58, 281–300. https://doi.org/10.1159/000444....
 
57.
Weir, K. F., & Jose, P. E. (2010). The Perception of False Self Scale for adolescents: Reliability, validity, and longi-tudinal relationships with depressive and anxious symptoms. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 393–411. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151....
 
58.
Wilkinson, H., Whittington, R., Perry, L., & Eames, E. (2017). Examining the relationship between burnout and empathy in healthcare professionals: a systematic review. Burnout Research, 6, 18–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.burn....
 
59.
Wright, J. C., Nadelhoffer, T., Thomson Ross, L., & Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2018). Be it ever so humble: Proposing a dual-dimension account and measurement of humility. Self and Identity, 17, 92–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/152988....
 
60.
Xiao, W., Lin, X., Li, X., Xu, X., Guo, H., Sun, B., & Jiang, H. (2021). The influence of emotion and empathy on deci-sions to help others. SAGE Open, 11, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/215824....
 
61.
Yang, K., Zhou, L., Wang, Z., Lin, C., & Luo, Z. (2019). The dark side of expressed humility for non-humble lead-ers: a conservation of resources perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1858. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192