Affective temperaments in nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine-dependent individuals
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Faculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Faculty of Psychology, University of Finance and Management, Warsaw, Poland
Submission date: 2016-04-24
Final revision date: 2016-07-01
Acceptance date: 2016-07-04
Online publication date: 2016-07-27
Publication date: 2016-09-26
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2016;4(3):125–131
One of the smoking risk factors influencing nicotine dependency may be human personality; however, few studies have examined the association between Akiskal’s affective temperaments and smoking in adults. Our study aims to evaluate the associations between nicotine dependence and affective temperaments using the TEMPS-A.

Participants and procedure
The sample in this study consisted of 678 healthy Caucasian adults aged from 17 to 69 years, including 134 self-declared nicotine-dependent subjects (89 females and 45 males) and 544 self-declared non-nicotine-dependent subjects (352 females and 192 males). The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious).

Nicotine-dependent individuals scored higher on cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments than non-nicotine-dependents (no significant differences with regard to depressive and hyperthymic temperaments). Among the nicotine-dependent individuals, females scored higher on anxious temperaments than males (no differences with regard to the other affective temperaments), and among the non-nicotine-dependent individuals, females exhibited more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments than males, while males exhibited more hyperthymic temperaments than females.

The results suggest that affective, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in both genders and anxious temperaments in females may be predictors of nicotine dependence in adults.
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