Reliability, factor structure, and construct validity of the Polish version of the sport imagery ability measure
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Submission date: 2014-10-13
Final revision date: 2014-11-12
Acceptance date: 2014-11-12
Online publication date: 2014-12-08
Publication date: 2014-12-08
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2014;2(4):196-207
An important component of mental training in sport is the utilization of positive imagery. The “human brain cannot distinguish between an imagined experience and a real experience. The same areas of the brain light up in an imagined experience or imagined performance as in a real experience or performance. For that reason, positive performance imagery has enormous potential” (Orlick, 2008, p. 101). Imagery “has been described as a centre pillar of applied sport psychology” research (Morris, Spittle, & Perry, 2004, p. 344). The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity characteristics of the Polish language version of the Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM).

Participants and procedure
Polish athletes (N = 316) from a range of sports and competitive levels completed the 48 item SIAM. The participants (163 male, 153 female) were aged between 12 and 57 years (M = 22.15, SD = 8.25).

Results indicated that the SIAM had sound internal consistency and maintained good stability over a 3-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the a priori 3-factor structure of the SIAM resulted in a set of acceptable and poor fit indices (CFI = .91, NFI = .90, RMSEA = .12). Finally, differences in athletes’ imagery abilities were examined in relation to competitive level, gender, and age.

Overall, results generally supported the reliability and construct validity of the Polish version of the SIAM.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
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