Relationship between dimensions of grandiose narcissism and Facebook addiction among university students
More details
Hide details
University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2019-07-23
Final revision date: 2020-01-04
Acceptance date: 2020-01-20
Online publication date: 2019-12-30
Publication date: 2019-12-30
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2019;7(4):313-323
The present study aimed to examine the relationship between different dimensions of grandiose narcissism and Facebook addiction among undergraduate students. In the Polish population, grandiose narcissism has been shown to have a four-factor structure: Self-sufficiency, Vanity, Leadership and Admiration demand. Stud-ies consistently show that grandiose narcissism is related to Facebook addiction. However, it is still not clear which dimensions of grandiose narcissism are particularly related to this addiction.

Participants and procedure:
The sample consisted of 486 students (313 women, 173 men). The mean age in the sample was M = 21.56 (SD = 4.50). Students were invited to participate anonymously in the study during lectures or classes. Part of the sample completed the questionnaire featured on Facebook. Valid and reliable psychometric tools were applied to assess grandiose narcissism, the Big Five personality traits and Facebook addiction.

The results showed that Facebook addiction was positively related to Admiration demand and negatively relat-ed to Self-sufficiency after controlling for age, gender, and the Big Five personality traits. However, there was no relationship between Vanity or Leadership and Facebook addiction above and beyond other study variables.

The results showed that a particular dimension of grandiose narcissism (i.e. passive and dependent on others) could be viewed as a risk factor of Facebook addiction. On the other hand, the active and independent dimen-sion of grandiose narcissism could be viewed as a protective factor in the context of Facebook addiction.

Ackerman, R. A., Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., Trześniewski, K. H., Robins, R. W., & Kashy, D. A. (2011). What does the narcissistic personality inventory really measure? Assessment, 18, 67–87.
Akınci, İ. (2015). The relationship between the types of narcissism and psychological well-being: the roles of emotions and difficulties in emotion regulation (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
Andreassen, C. S. (2015). Online social network site addiction: a comprehensive review. Current Ad-diction Reports, 2, 175–184.
Andreassen, C. S., Billieux, J., Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., Demetrovics, Z., Mazzoni, E., & Pallesen, S. (2016). The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: a large-scale cross-sectional study. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 30, 252–262.
Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., Gjertsen, S. R., Krossbakken, E., Kvam, S., & Pallesen, S. (2013). The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2, 90–99.
Andreassen, C. S., & Pallesen, S. (2014). Social network site addiction – an overview. Current Phar-maceutical Design, 20, 4053–4061.
Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behav-iors, 64, 287–293.
Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim, T., Brunborg, G. S., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a Facebook addiction scale. Psychological Reports, 110, 501–517.
Atroszko, P. A. (2015). The structure of study addiction: Selected risk factors and the relationship with stress, stress coping and psychosocial functioning (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Gdansk, Gdansk.
Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2016a). Study addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study examining temporal stability and predictors of its changes. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5, 357–362.
Atroszko, P. A., Andreassen, C. S., Griffiths, M. D., & Pallesen, S. (2016b). The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study. Journal of Behavioral Addic-tions, 5, 708–714.
Atroszko, P. A., Balcerowska, J. M., Bereznowski, P., Biernatowska, A., Pallesen, S., & Andreassen, C. S. (2018). Facebook addiction among Polish undergraduate students: Validity of measurement and relationship with personality and well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 329–338.
Back, M. D., Kufner, A. C. P., Dufner, M., Gerlach, T. M., Rauthmann, J. F., & Denissen, J. J. A. (2013). Narcissistic admiration and rivalry: Disentangling the bright and dark sides of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 1013–1037.
Balcerowska, J. M., & Biernatowska, A. (2018). Uzależnienia behawioralne – przegląd badań obejmu-jących osobowościowe i psychospołeczne korelaty uzależnień [Behavioral addiction: a review of the personality and psychosocial correlates]. In W. Ślusarczyk, R. Wilczyńska, & G. Frischke (Eds.), Nałogi. Medyczne i kulturowe aspekty uzależnień na przestrzeni dziejów [Addictions. Medical and cultural aspects of addictions throughout history] (pp. 117–131). Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwer-sytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej.
Barry, C. T., Doucette, H., Loflin, D. C., Rivera-Hudson, N., & Herrington, L. L. (2015). “Let me take a selfie”: Associations between self-photography, narcissism, and self-esteem. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 6, 48–60.
Barry, C. T., & McDougall, K. H. (2018). Social media: Platform or catalyst for narcissism? In A. Her-mann, A. Brunell, & J. Foster (Eds.), Handbook of trait narcissism (pp. 435–441). Cham: Springer.
Bazińska, R., & Drat-Ruszczak, K. (2000). Struktura narcyzmu w polskiej adaptacji kwestionariusza NPI Ruskina i Halla [Structure of narcissism in the Polish adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality In-ventory]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 6, 171–188.
Biernatowska, A., Balcerowska, J. M., & Pianka, L. (2017). Why narcissists are using Facebook? The relationship between narcissism dependent on others and using Facebook among students. In J. Leśny & J. Nyćkowiak (Eds.), Badania i rozwój młodych naukowców w Polsce – Społeczeństwo: psychologia i socjologia [Research and development of the young scientists in Poland – Society: psychology and sociology] (pp. 8–15). Poznań: Młodzi Naukowcy.
Błachnio, A., & Przepiórka, A. (2018). Facebook intrusion, fear of missing out, narcissism, and life satisfaction: a cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Research, 259, 514–519.
Błachnio, A., Przepiórka, A., & Pantic, I. (2015). Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study. European Psychiatry, 30, 681–684.
Błachnio, A., Przepiórka, A., & Rudnicka, P. (2016). Narcissism and self-esteem as predictors of di-mensions of Facebook use. Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 296–301.
Brand, M., Young, K. S., Laier, C., Wölfling, K., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Inter-net-use disorders: an interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. Neurosci-ence & Biobehavioral Reviews, 71, 252–266.
Bushman, B. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (1998). Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: Does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 219–229.
Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: development of a theory-based cognitive–behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 553–575.
Charzyńska, E., & Góźdź, J. (2014). W sieci uzależnienia. Polska adaptacja Skali Uzależnienia od Fa-cebooka (the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale) C. S. Andreassen, T. Torsheima, G. S. Brunborga i S. Pallesena [In the network of addiction. Polish adaptation of Facebook addiction scale (the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale) by C. S. Andreassen, T. Torsheim, G. S. Brunborg, and S. Pallesen]. Chowanna, 1, 163–185.
Chen, G. M. (2011). Tweet this: a uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use grati-fies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 755–762.
Dickinson, K. A., & Pincus, A. L. (2003). Interpersonal analysis of grandiose and vulnerable narcis-sism. Journal of Personality Disorders, 17, 188–207.
Emmons, R. A. (1984). Factor analysis and construct validity of the narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 291–300.
Facebook (2020, January, 4). Facebook reports third quarter 2019 results. Retrieved from
Fan, W., & Yan, Z. (2010). Factors affecting response rates of the web survey: a systematic review. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 132–139.
Frost, R. L., & Rickwood, D. J. (2017). A systematic review of the mental health outcomes associated with Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 576–600.
Given-Wilson, Z., McIlwain, D., & Warburton, W. (2011). Meta-cognitive and interpersonal difficulties in overt and covert narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1000–1005.
Gnambs, T., & Appel, M. (2017). Narcissism and social networking behavior: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality, 86, 200–212.
Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B., Jr. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five per-sonality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 379, 504–528.
Griffiths, M. (2005). A “components” model of addiction within a biopsychosocial framework. Journal of Substance Use, 10, 191–197.
Hussain, Z., & Griffiths, M. D. (2018). Problematic social networking site use and comorbid psychiat-ric disorders: a systematic review of recent large-scale studies. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 686.
Katz, E., Haas, H., & Gurevitch, M. (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. Ameri-can Sociological Review, 38, 164–181.
Kircaburun, K., Demetrovics, Z., & Tosuntaş, Ş. B. (2018). Analyzing the links between problematic social media use, dark triad traits, and self-esteem. International Journal of Mental Health and Ad-diction, 17, 1496–1507.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Online social networking and addiction – a review of the psy-chological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8, 3528–3552.
Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social networking sites and addiction: Ten lessons learned. In-ternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14, 1–17.
Marino, C., Gini, G., Vieno, A., & Spada, M. M. (2018). A comprehensive meta-analysis on problemat-ic Facebook use. Computers in Human Behavior, 83, 262–277.
McCain, J. L., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Narcissism and social media use: a meta-analytic review. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 7, 308–327.
Miller, J. D., & Campbell, W. K. (2008). Comparing clinical and social-personality conceptualizations of narcissism. Journal of Personality, 76, 449–476.
Miller, J. D., Hoffman, B. J., Gaughan, E. T., Gentile, B., Maples, J., & Keith Campbell, W. (2011). Grandiose and vulnerable narcissism: a nomological network analysis. Journal of Personality, 79, 1013–1042.
Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism: a dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 177–196.
Mull, I. R., & Lee, S. E. (2014). “PIN” pointing the motivational dimensions behind Pinterest. Comput-ers in Human Behavior, 33, 192–200.
Nadkarni, A., & Hoffman, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook? Personality and Individual Dif-ferences, 52, 243–249.
Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Invento-ry and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890–902.
Riva, G., Wiederhold, B. K., & Cipresso, P. (2016). Psychology of social media: From technology to identity. In G. Riva, B. K. Wiederhold, & P. Cipresso (Eds.), The psychology of social networking: Personal experience in online communities (pp. 1–11). Warszawa: De Gruyter Open.
Ryan, T., Chester, A., Reece, J., & Xenos, S. (2014). The uses and abuses of Facebook: a review of Facebook addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 3, 133–148.
Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89–97.
Statistica (2020, January, 4). Number of social network users worldwide from 2010 to 2021. Retrieved from
Throuvala, M. A., Griffiths, M. D., Rennoldson, M., & Kuss, D. J. (2019). Motivational processes and dysfunctional mechanisms of social media use among adolescents: a qualitative focus group study. Computers in Human Behavior, 93, 164–175.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2003). “Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve?” Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 261–272.
Wiggins, J. S. (1996). The five-factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Wink, P. (1991). Two faces of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 590–597.
Xu, H., & Tan, B. C. (2012). Why do I keep checking Facebook: Effects of message characteristics on the formation of social network services addiction. Retrieved from
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top