Psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS)
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2018-01-24
Final revision date: 2018-04-10
Acceptance date: 2018-05-07
Online publication date: 2018-07-05
Publication date: 2018-09-01
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2018;6(3):181-187
Self-concept clarity is one of the features describing the structural aspect of the self. It refers to the extent to which the contents of an individual’s self-concept are clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable. The aim of the study was to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Self-Concept Clarity Scale (SCCS).

Participants and procedure:
A total of 2507 graduates and undergraduates participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 70 years (M = 24.74, SD = 23.00); 66% of them were female. The Polish version of the SCCS was developed using the back-translation method. The SCCS was administered along with measures of sense of self (Sense of Self Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), psychological distress (Goldberg General Health Questionnaire), personality (NEO-Five Factor Inventory), and social desirability (Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale).

The factor structure, reliability, and validity of the scale was investigated. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis showed a one-factor solution. Internal reliability and test–retest reliability was high. Significant relations between SCCS and weak sense of self, self-esteem, psychological distress, personality, and social desirability supported its convergent validity.

This study demonstrated that the Polish version of the SCCS is a reliable and valid self-report measure for the self-concept clarity.

Bechtoldt, M. N., De Dreu, C. K. W., Nijstad, B. A., & Zapf, D. (2010). Self-concept clarity and the management of social conflict. Journal of Personality, 78, 539–574. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00626.x.
Bigler, M., Neimeyer, G. J., & Brown, E. (2001). The divided self revisited: Effects of self-concept clarity and self-concept differentiation on psychological adjustment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20, 396–415. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.20.3.396.22302.
Block, J. (1961). Ego identity, role variability, and adjustment. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 25, 392–397. DOI: 10.1037/h0042979.
Campbell, J. D., Assanand, S., & Di Paula, A. (2003). The structure of the self-concept and its relation to psychological adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71, 115–140. DOI: 10.1111/1467-6494.t01-1-00002.
Campbell, J. D., Trapnell, P. D., Heine, S. J., Katz, I. M., Lavallee, L. F., & Lehman, D. R. (1996). Self-concept clarity: Measurement, personality correlates, and cultural boundaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 141–156. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.1.141.
Costa, P. T. Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Crowne, D., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354. DOI: 10.1037/h0047358.
Curran, P. J., West, S. G., & Finch, J. F. (1996). The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 1, 16–29. DOI: 10.1037//1082-989x.1.1.16.
DeMarree, K. G., & Lodi-Smith, J. (2018). An overview of self-concept clarity: Definitions, empirical themes, and introduction to the volume. In J. Lodi-Smith & K. G. DeMarree (eds.), Self concept clarity: Perspectives on assessment, research, and application (pp. 12–20). New York: Springer.
Donahue, E. M., Robins, R. W., Roberts, B. W., & John, O. P. (1993). The divided self: Concurrent and longitudinal effects of psychological adjustment and social roles on self-concept differentiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 834–846. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.834.
Drat-Ruszczak, K., & Niemyjska, A. (2013). Polska adaptacja skali Ja (SOSS) [Polish adaptation of Sense of Self Scale (SOSS)]. Sopot: SWPS.
Fickova, E. (1999). Personality dimensions and self-esteem indicators relationships. Studia Psychologica, 41, 323–328.
Flury, J. M., & Ickes, W. (2007). Having a weak versus strong sense of self: The sense of self scale (SOSS). Self and Identity, 6, 281–303. DOI: 10.1080/15298860601033208.
Goldberg, D. P., & Williams, P. (1988). A user’s guide to the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94, 319–340.
Kenny, D. A., & McCoach, D. B. (2003). Effect of the number of variables on measures of fit in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 10, 333–351. DOI: 10.1207/s15328007sem1003_1.
Kim, D. (1998). Self-concept clarity in Korea: Personality, self-consciousness and behavioural correlates. Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea.
Lewandowski, G. W., Nardone, N., & Raines, A. J. (2010). The role of self-concept clarity in relationship quality. Self and Identity, 9, 416–433. DOI: 10.1080/15298860903332191.
Linville, P. W. (1985). Self-complexity and affective extremity: Don’t put all of your eggs in one cognitive basket. Social Cognition, 3, 94–120. DOI: 10.1521/soco.1985.3.1.94.
Łaguna, M., Lachowicz-Tabaczek, K., & Dzwonkowska, I. (2007). Skala samooceny SES Morrisa Rosenberga – polska adaptacja metody [The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Polish adaptation of the scale]. Psychologia Społeczna, 2, 164–176.
Makowska, Z., & Merecz, D. (2001). Polska adaptacja kwestionariuszy ogólnego stanu zdrowia Davida Goldberga: GHQ-12 i GHQ-28 [Polish adaptation of Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaires: GHQ-12 and GHQ-28]. In M. Makowska & D. Merecz (eds.), Ocena zdrowia psychicznego na podstawie badań kwestiona­riuszami Davida Goldberga [The assessment of mental health using Golberg’s questionnaires] (pp. 191–264). Łódź: Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. Prof. J. Nofera.
Matto, H., & Realo, A. (2001). The Estonian Self-Concept Clarity Scale: psychometric properties and personality correlates. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 59–70. DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00010-6.
O’Brien, E. J., & Epstein, S. (1988). MSEI: the Multidimensional self-esteem inventory: professional manual. Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Siuta, J. (1989). Zmienna aprobaty społecznej w badaniach nad zjawiskami hipnotycznymi [Social desirability in research on hypnotic phenomena]. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 884, 131–141.
Stucke, T. S. (2002). Überprüfung einer deutschen Version der Selbstkonzeptklarheits-Skala von Campbell [Validity of Campbell’s Self-Concept Clarity Scale]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 23, 475–484. DOI: 10.1024//0170-1789.23.4.475.
Tokunaga, Y., & Horiuchi, T. (2012). Development of a Japanese version of the Self-Concept Clarity (SCC) Scale. The Japanese Journal of Personality, 20, 193–203. DOI: 10.2132/personality.20.193.
Vartanian, L. R. (2009). When the body defines the self: self-concept clarity, internalization, and body image. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28, 94–126. DOI: 10.1521/jscp.2009.28.1.94.
Williams, L. J., & O’Boyle, E. H. (2008). Measurement models for linking latent variables and indicators: A review of human resource management research using parcels. Human Resource Management Review, 18, 233–242. DOI: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2008.07.002.
Wu, J., & Watkins, D. (2009). Development and validation of a Chinese version of the Self-Concept Clarity Scale. Psychologia, 52, 67–79. DOI: 10.2117/psysoc.2009.67.
Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwiń­ska, M. (1998). Inwentarz osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Polska adaptacja [Polish adaptation of Costa and McCrae’s NEO-FFI Personality Inventory]. Warsaw: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top