Polish version of Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D): results of a preliminary study on the psychometric properties of the scale
More details
Hide details
Online publication date: 2014-02-23
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2013;1(1):51-61
The Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is one of the most popular diagnostic tools used to assess depression symptoms, both in epidemiological studies and other types of research projects. The aim of the presented study was the assessment of the psychometric qualities of the Polish version of the scale.

Participants and procedure
The study was conducted on a group of patients suffering from a somatic illness and at risk of developing depression (n = 826) and among healthy individuals from the general population (n = 1160).

The results confirmed the factorial structure of the questionnaire. Convergent validity was confirmed by correlations with other measures of affect and resources consistent with the theory.

The results of our analyses confirmed that the Polish version of the questionnaire is satisfactory in terms of construct and criterion validity and provides a reliable psychometric tool.
Affleck, G., Tennen, H., Urrows, S. & Higgins, P. (1991). Individual differences in the day to day experience of chronic pain: a prospective d aily study of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Health Psychology, 10, 419-426. DOI: 10.1037/0278-6133.10.6.419.
Al-Modallal, H. (2010). Screening depressive symptoms in Jordanian women: evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 8, 537-544. DOI: 10.3109/01612841003703329.
Andresen, E.M., Malmgren, J.A., Carter, W.B. & Pa­trick, D.L. (1994). Screening for depression in well older adults: Evaluation of a short form of the CES-D. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 10, 77-84.
Antonovsky, A. (1995). Rozwikłanie tajemnicy zdrowia. Jak radzić sobie ze stresem i nie zachorować? [Unraveling the mystery of health – how people manage stress and stay well]. Warszawa: Wydaw­nictwo Fundacja IPN.
Aronen, E.T. & Soininen, M. (2000). Childhood depressive symptoms predict psychiatric problems in young adults. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 465-470.
Block, J., Kremen, A.M. (1996). IQ and Ego-Resiliency: conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psycho­logy, 70, 349-361. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.349.
Craig, T.J. & van Natta, P.A. (1978). Recognition of depressed affect in hospitalized psychiatric patients: staff and patient perceptions. Diseases of the Nervous System, 10, 561-566.
Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J. & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction With Life Scale. Journal of Personality & Social Assessment, 49, 71-75.
Du Toit, M. & Du Toit, S.H.C. (2001). Interactive LISREL: User’s Guide. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Felton, B.J., Revenson, T.A. & Hinrichsen, G.A. (1984). Stress and coping in the explanation of psychological adjustment among chronically ill adults. Social Science & Medicine, 18, 889-898.
Fifield, J., Mcquillan, J., Armeli, S., Tennen, H., Reisine, S. & Affleck, G. (2004). Chronic strain, daily work stress.
and pain among workers with rheumatoid arthri­tis: Does job stress make a bad day worse? Work & Stress, 4, 275-291. DOI: 10.1080/02678370412331324996.
Gärtner, G. (2006). Anforderungsbewältigung im aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Wandlungsprozess. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Leipzig, Germany.
Hankin, B.L., Wetter, E. & Cheely, C. (2008). Sex differences in child and adolescent depression: developmental psychopathological approach. In: J.R.Z. Abela & B.L. Hankin (eds.). Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (p. 377-414). New York: Guilford Press.
Hertzog, C., Van Alstine, J., Usala, P.D., Hultsch, D.F. & Dixon, R. (1990). Measurement properties of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in older populations. Psychological Assessment, 2, 64-72. DOI: 10.1037/1040-3590.2.1.64.
Hicks, A.D. & McCord, D.M. (2012). Correlating the BDI-II, CES-D, and the Five-Factor Model: A Pilot Study. Individual Differences Research, 10, 27-36.
Hu, L. & Bentler, P. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 4, 424-453.
Jöreskog, K.G. & Sörbom, D. (2006). LISREL for Windows [Computer software]. Lincolnwood, IL: Scien­tific Software International.
Jöreskog, K.G. & Sörbom, D. (1999). LISREL 8: User’s Reference Guide. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Juczyński, Z. (2001). Narzędzia pomiaru w promocji.
i psychologii zdrowia [Measurement tools in health promotion and health psychology]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
Kaczmarek, Ł. (2011). Kwestionariusz Sprężystości Psychicznej – polska adaptacja Ego Resiliency Scale. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 17, 263-265.
Kaczmarek, Ł.D. & Aleszczyk, K. (2013). Mechanizm sprężystości psychicznej – model mediacji dwukrokowej z udziałem strategii radzenia sobie i pozytywnego afektu. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 19, 67-72.
Kaczmarek, Ł.D., Kashdan, T.B., Kleiman, E., Bącz­ko­wski, B., Enko, B., Siebers, A., Szäefer, A., Król, M. & Baran, B. (2013). Who self-initiates gratitude interventions in daily life? An examination of intentions, curiosity, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 805-810.
Kaniasty, K. (2003). Klęska żywiołowa czy katastrofa społeczna? Psychospołeczne konsekwencje polskiej powodzi 1997 roku [Natural or social catastrophy? Psychosocial consequences of 1997 flood in Poland]. Gdańsk: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.
Katz, P.P. & Yelin, E.H. (1993). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among persons with rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Rheumatology, 20, 790-796.
Kessler, R.C., Avenevoli, S. & Merikangas, K.R. (2001). Mood disorders in children and adolescents: An epidemiologic perspective. Biological Psychiatry, 49, 1002-1014.
Kim, G., DeCoster, J., Huang, C.H. & Chiriboga, D.A. (2011). Race/ethnicity and the factor structure of the center for epidemiologic studies depression scale: a meta-analysis. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 17, 381-396. DOI: 10.1037/a0025434.
Lane, D., Carroll, D., Ring, C., Beeveres, D.G. & Lip, G.Y.H. (2002). The prevalence and persistence of depression and anxiety following myocardial infarction. British Journal of Health Psychology, 7, 11-21.
Marsh, H., Hau, K. & Wen, Z. (2004). Structural equation models of latent interactions: evaluation of alternative estimation strategies and indicator construction. Psychological Methods, 9, 275-300.
Maughan, B., Collishaw, S. & Stringaris, A. (2013). Depression in childhood and adolescence. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22, 35-40.
McCauley, S.R., Pedroza, C., Brown, S.A., Boake, C., Levin, H.S., Goodman, H.S. & Merritt, S.G. (2006). Confirmatory factor structure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) in mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 519-527. DOI:10.1080/02699050600676651.
National Institute of Mental Health (2009). The numbers count: Mental disorders in America.
Paterson T., O’Rourke N., Elmer E., Shapiro R.J. & Thornton, W. (2011). The composition and structure of depressive symptomatology in renal disease. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 43, 318-327.
Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.
Satorra, A. & Bentler, P.M. (1988). Scaling corrections for statistics in covariance structure analysis. Los Angeles: University of California, Department of Psychology.
Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized Self- Efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright & M. Johnston. Measures in health psychology: A user’s portfolio. Causal and control beliefs (pp. 35-37). Windsor, UK: NFER-NELSON.
Seligman, M.E.P., Steen, T.A., Park, N. & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress. Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410-421.
Seligman, M.E.P., Walter, E.F. & Rosenhan, D.L. (2003). Psychopatologia [Psychopathology]. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Zysk i S-ka.
Shafer, A.B. (2006). Meta-analysis of the factor structures of four depression questionnaires: Beck, CES-D, Hamilton, and Zung. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 123-146. DOI:10.1002/jclp.20213.
Shaver, P.R. & Brennan, K.A. (1991). Measures of Depression and Loneliness. In: J.P. Robinson, P.R. Shaver & L.S. Wrightsman (eds.). Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. 1st Edition. Volume 1: Measures of Social Psychological Attitudes (p. 195-290). San Diego, Londyn: Elsevier.
Shnek, Z.M., Irvine, J., Stewart, D. & Abbey, S. (2001). Psychological factors and depressive symptoms in ischemic heart disease. Health Psychology, 20, 141-145. DOI: 10.1037//0278-6133.20.2.141.
Thapar, A., Collishaw, S., Pine, D.S. & Thapar, A.K. (2012). Depression in adolescence. Lancet, 9820, 1056-1067. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60871-4.
Thomas, J.L. & Brantley, P.J. (2004). Factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale in low-income women attending primary care clinics. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20, 106-115. DOI: 10.1027/1015-5759.20.2.106.
Uguz, F., Akman, C., Kucuksarac, S. & Tufekci, O. (2009). Anti-tumor necrosis factor-a therapy is associated with less frequent mood and anxiety disorders in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63, 50-55. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2008.01905.x.
Wells, A. (1994). A multi-dimensional measure of worry: Development and preliminary validation of the Anxious Thoughts Inventory. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 6, 289-299. DOI: 10.1080/10615809408248803.
Zautra, A.J., Parrish, B.P., Van Puymbroeck, C.M., Tennen, H., Davis, M.C., Reich, J.W. & Irwin, M. (2007). Depression history, stress, and pain in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 187-197. DOI 10.1007/s10865-007-9097-4.
Zautra, A.J. & Smith, B.W. (2001). Depression and reactivity to stress in older women with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 687-696.
Zich, J.M., Attkisson, C.C. & Greenfield, T.K. (1990). Screening for depression in primary care clinics: The CES-D and the BDI. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 20, 259-277. DOI:10.2190/LYKR-7VHP-YJEM-MKM2.
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (, allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top