RESEARCH PAPER
Validation of the Parental Responsiveness Scale
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Science, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2020-11-27
Final revision date: 2021-02-18
Acceptance date: 2021-02-19
Online publication date: 2021-04-10
Publication date: 2021-07-19
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2021;9(3):258–266
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
Parental responsiveness is a parent’s predisposition to react to their child’s verbal and non-verbal cues promptly and adequately. There is no self-report scale that measures this type of behavior. The aim of this study was to construct a valid and useful scale to measure this construct as subjectively reported by parents of young children.

Participants and procedure:
Two hundred and fifty parents (including 186 mothers) of young children aged from 1 to 18 months (Mage = 8.60, SDage = 4.06) took part in the study. To confirm the external validity of the tool, participants filled in the following question-naires: the Parental Responsiveness Scale, the Empathic Sensitivity Scale, and the Experience in Close Relationships-Revised Scale – short version.

Results:
The confirmatory analysis verified the one-dimensional structure and that the model has a good fit. Moreover, the results of external validation indicated satisfactory correlations between parental responsiveness and empathic concern (r = .30, p < .01), perspective-taking (r = .31, p < .01), and avoidance (r = .23, p < .01) in relationships.

Conclusions:
The Parental Responsiveness Scale is valid and reliable. This scale could be useful in research on family and child development, and on individual differences between parents, but can also be of use in practice.

 
REFERENCES (33)
1.
Ainsworth, M. D. S., Bell, S. M., & Stayton, D. J. (1974) Infant-mother attachment and social development: “Socialisation” as a product of reciprocal responsiveness to signals. In P. M. Richards (Ed.), The integration of a child into a social world (pp. 99–135). Cambridge University Press.
 
2.
Ainsworth, M. S. (1979). Infant-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932–937. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-0....
 
3.
Anikiej, P., & Kaźmierczak, M. (2019). Ku empatycznemu rodzicielstwu – wymiary empatii i przywiązania jako predyktory responsywności matek i ojców wobec ich małych dzieci [Empathic parenting – dimensions of empathy and attachment as predictors of the responsiveness of mothers and fathers towards tod-dlers/infants]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 62, 583–612.
 
4.
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2018). Oxytocin and human sensitive and protective parenting. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 35, 421–448. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2....
 
5.
Barr, R. G., Fairbrother, N., Pauwels, J., Green, J., Chen, M., & Brant, R. (2014). Maternal frustration, emotional and behavioural responses to prolonged infant crying. Infant Behavior & Development, 37, 652–664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infb....
 
6.
Belsky J. (2014). Social-contextual determinants of parenting. In R. E. Tremblay, M. Boivin, & R. D. Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on early childhood development. Retrieved from http://www.child-encyclopedia.....
 
7.
Belsky, J., & Barends, N. (2002). Personality and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (Vol. 3, pp. 415–438). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
8.
Boorman, R. J., Creedy, D. K., Fenwick, J., & Muurlink, O. (2019). Empathy in pregnant women and new moth-ers: a systematic literature review. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 37, 84–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/026468....
 
9.
Braungart-Rieker, J., Zentall, S., Lickenbrock, D., Ekas, N., Oshio, T., & Planalp, E. (2014). Attachment in the making: Mother and father sensitivity and infants’ responses during the Still-Face Paradigm. Journal of Ex-perimental Child Psychology, 125, 63–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp....
 
10.
Brennan, K., Clark, C., & Shaver, P. (1998). Self-report measures of adult romantic attachment. In J. Simpson & W. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). Guilford Press.
 
11.
Davis, M. (2004). Empathy: Negotiating the border between self and other. In C. W. Leach (Ed.), The social life of emotions (pp. 19–42). Cambridge University Press.
 
12.
Eisenberg, N., & Eggum, N. D. (2009). Empathic responding: Sympathy and personal distress. In J. Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 71–83). MIT Press.
 
13.
Edwards, C. P., Sheridan, S. M., & Knoche, L. L. (2010). Parent-child relationships in early learning. Internation-al Encyclopedia of Education, 2010, 438–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0....
 
14.
Fekete, C., Tough, H., Siegrist, J., & Brinkhof, M. W. (2017). Health impact of objective burden, subjective bur-den and positive aspects of caregiving: an observational study among caregivers in Switzerland. BMJ Open, 7, e017369. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjope....
 
15.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/107055....
 
16.
Hudson, S., Levickis, P., Down K., Nicholls R., Wake M., (2015). Maternal responsiveness predicts child lan-guage at ages 3 and 4 in a community-based sample of slow-to-talk toddlers. International Journal of Lan-guage & Communication Disorders, 50, 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1111/1460-6....
 
17.
Jia, R., Kotila, L. E., Schoppe-Sullivan, S. J., & Kamp Dush, C. M. (2016). New parents’ psychological adjust-ment and trajectories of early parental involvement. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78, 197–211. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.1....
 
18.
Jones, J. D., Cassidy, J., & Shaver, P. R. (2015). Adult attachment style and parenting. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and research: New directions and emerging themes (pp. 234–260). The Gu-ilford Press.
 
19.
Kaźmierczak, M., Plopa, M., & Retowski, S. (2007). Skala Wrażliwości Empatycznej [Empatic Sensitive Scale]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 50, 9–24.
 
20.
Kaźmierczak, M., & Pawlicka, P. (2018). SER-PD – Polish adaptation of the My Emotions Scale for the assess-ment of parents’ emotional reactions to child’s crying. Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 7, 53–63. https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2....
 
21.
Kaźmierczak, M., & Karasiewicz, K. (2019). Making space for a new role – gender differences in identity chang-es in couples transitioning to parenthood. Journal of Gender Studies, 28, 271–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/095892....
 
22.
Leerkes, E. M., Blankson, A. N., & O’Brien, M. (2009). Differential effects of maternal sensitivity to infant dis-tress and nondistress on social-emotional functioning. Child Development, 80, 762–775. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467....
 
23.
Leerkes, E. M. (2010). Predictors of maternal sensitivity to infant distress. Parenting, 10, 219–239. https://doi.org/10.1080/152951....
 
24.
Lubiewska, K., Głogowska, K., Mickiewicz, K., Wojtynkiewicz, E., Izdebski, P., & Wiśniewski, C. (2016). Skala Experience in Close Relationships-Revised: Struktura, rzetelność oraz skrócona wersja skali w polskiej próbie [The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised questionnaire: Factorial structure, reliability and a short ver-sion of the scale in a Polish sample]. Psychologia Rozwojowa, 21, 49–63. https://doi.org/10.4467/208438....
 
25.
Mesman, J., Minter, T., Angnged, A., Cissé, I. A., Salali, G. D., & Migliano, A. B. (2017). Universality without uniformity: a culturally inclusive approach to sensitive responsiveness in infant caregiving. Child Develop-ment, 89, 837–850. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.1....
 
26.
Mihelic, M., Morawska, A., & Filus, A. (2017). Effects of early parenting interventions on parents and infants: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 26, 1507–1526. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826....
 
27.
Schaffer, D. R., & Kipp, K. (2015). Psychologia rozwoju. Od dziecka do dorosłości. [Developmental psycholo-gy. From child to adulthood]. Wydawnictwo Harmonia Universalis.
 
28.
Schreiter, S., Pijnenborg, G., & Rot, M. (2013). Empathy in adults with clinical or subclinical depressive symp-toms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.....
 
29.
Stern, J. A., Borelli, J. L., & Smiley, P. A. (2015). Assessing parental empathy: a role for empathy in child at-tachment. Attachment and Human Development, 17, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/146167....
 
30.
Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Kuchirko, Y., & Song, L. (2014). Why is infant language learning facilitated by parental responsiveness? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 121–126. https://doi.org/10.1177/096372....
 
31.
van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. (2012), Integrating temperament and attachment. The differential susceptibility paradigm. In M. Zentner & R. L. Shiner (Eds.), Handbook of temperament (pp. 403–424). Guilford.
 
32.
van Ijzendoorn, M. H., & Hubbard, F. O. (2000). Are infant crying and maternal responsiveness during the first year related to infant-mother attachment at 15 months? Attachment & Human Development, 2, 371–391. https://doi.org/10.1080/146167....
 
33.
Vrticka, P., & Vuilleumier, P. (2012). Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 212. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.....
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192