Time perspective and self-control: metacognitive management of time is important for efficient self-regulation of behavior
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Institute of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland
Submission date: 2020-01-15
Final revision date: 2020-06-24
Acceptance date: 2020-06-29
Online publication date: 2020-06-30
Publication date: 2020-07-20
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2020;8(2):83–91
The way people perceive time is interesting in itself but also as a predictor of social, cognitive, and affective aspects of behavior. It is also a correlate of important psychological traits.

Participants and procedure:
In this study, we investigated associations between psychometrically assessed self-control and metacognitive processes involved in time perspective (TP). Time perspective is defined as the engagement of temporal frames for better understanding the flow of events and personal experiences. Executive control and fluid intelligence were assessed as possible mediators of the investigated relationship. Participants (N = 150) completed the Temporal MetaCognition Scale (TMCS), Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and two inhibitory control tasks: the Stroop and Stop Signal Task (SST). Self-control was measured with three questionnaires: NAS-50, NAS-40, and the Self-Control Scale (SCS).

Temporal metacognition was found to be associated with self-control, but not with executive control and fluid intelligence. Two TMCS dimensions (Goal-oriented Metatemporal Interconnectedness, Metacognitive Temporal Control) were important positive predictors of self-control, whereas the third dimension (Cognitive Reconstruction of the Past) was a weak negative predictor.

These findings support the hypothesis that metacognitive processes involved in time perspective may help to exert control over one’s own behavior. The most important predictor of self-control is the ability to consider situations from various time perspec-tives.

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