RESEARCH PAPER
Patterns of intentional faking in questionnaire-based study of psychopathy
 
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2017-09-15
Final revision date: 2018-09-11
Acceptance date: 2018-09-13
Online publication date: 2018-12-19
Publication date: 2018-12-17
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2018;6(4):305–317
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The aim of the study was to identify the patterns of two types of faking the results of a self-report study – faking good and faking bad – and to determine their relationships with the images obtained as a result of completing a questionnaire in accordance with the standard instructions and therefore regarded as subjectively true. We investigated faking resulting from a short-term attitude stemming from the presence of a particular theme in the context of the items of a questionnaire assessing psychopathic personality.

Participants and procedure:
The results were collected in a population of participants (N = 173) of full legal age and without a criminal record. To examine the research problem, we used cluster analysis and Pearson’s r correlation coefficient. Calculations were performed in the R environment. The division of participants into homogeneous groups was based on the criterion of optimal breadth of the Silhouette index in accordance with the Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) method.

Results:
Five separate patterns of faking good and three patterns of faking bad during self-report assessment were distinguished. Intergroup differences in traits and behaviors characteristic of psychopathy in the groups distinguished based on the pattern of faking bad were not found.

Conclusions:
It can be concluded that the levels of traits and behavior patterns defining psychopathic personality are related to a particular profile produced as a result of faking good. The present study does not show the existence of a relationship between the level of psychopathy and any particular strategy of presenting oneself in a worse light.

 
REFERENCES (55)
1.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington: American Psychiatric Asso­ciation.
 
2.
Arendasy, M., Sommer, M., Herle, M., Schützhofer, B., & Inwanschitz, D. (2011). Modeling effects of faking on objective personality test. Journal of Individual Differences, 32, 210–218.
 
3.
Book, A. S., Holden, R. R., Starzyk, K. B., Wasylkiw, L., & Edwards, M. J. (2006). Psychopathic traits and experimentally induced deception in self-report assessment. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 601–608.
 
4.
Brzezińska, A. I., & Brzeziński, J. M. (2011). Skale szacunkowe w badaniach diagnostycznych [Rating scales in diagnostic studies]. In J. M. Brzeziński (Ed.), Metodologia badań społecznych. Wybór tekstów [The methodology of social studies] (pp. 299–399). Poznań: Zysk i S-ka.
 
5.
Cleckley, H. (1988). The mask of sanity. An attempt to clarify some issues about the so-called psychopathic personality. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.
 
6.
Cooke, D. J., Michie, C., & Skeem, J. (2007). Understanding the structure of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. An exploration of methodological confusion. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 39–50.
 
7.
Duda, R. O., & Hart, P. E. (1973). Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. New York: Wiley.
 
8.
Edens, J. F., Buffington, J. K., & Tomicic, T. L. (2000). An investigation of the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and malingering on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory. Assessment, 7, 281–296.
 
9.
Edens, J.F., Buffington, J.K., Tomicic, T.L., & Riley, B.D. (2001). Effects of Positive Impression Management on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory. Law and Human Behavior, 25, 3, 235–256.
 
10.
Eitan, D. G. (2011). Is the truth visible? Study along the L scale. Open Psychology Journal, 4, 73–87.
 
11.
Furnham, A. (1986). Response bias, social desirability and dissimulation. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 385–400.
 
12.
Furnham, A. (1990). Faking personality questionnaires: Fabricating different profiles for different purposes. Current Psychology: Research & Reviews, 9, 46–55.
 
13.
Gacono, C. B., Meloy, J. R., Sheppard, K., Speth, E. B., & Roske, A. (1995). A clinical investigation of malingering and psychopathy in hospitalized insanity acquittees. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 23, 1–11.
 
14.
Goffin, R. D., & Boyd, A. C. (2009). Faking and personality assessment in personnel selection: Advancing models of faking. Canadian Psychology, 50, 151–160.
 
15.
Goffin, R. D., & Christiansen, N. D. (2003). Correcting personality tests for faking: A review of popular personality tests and initial survey of researchers. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 11, 340–344.
 
16.
Groth, J., & Cierpiałkowska, L. (2012). Pięcioczynnikowy model osobowości a profile psychopatii w grupie nieprzestępczej [The five-factor model of personality and psychopathy profiles in the noncriminal group]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 18, 107–118.
 
17.
Hare, R. D. (1996). Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 25–54.
 
18.
Hare, R. D. (2003). Hare PCL-R (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
 
19.
Hare, R. D. (2006). Psychopaci są wśród nas [Psychopaths are among us]. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak.
 
20.
Hare, R. D. (2008). Psychological instruments in the assessment of psychopathy. In A. Felthous & H. Sass (Eds.), The international handbook of psychopathic disorders and the law (pp. 41–67). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
 
21.
Hare, R. D., Harpur, T. J., Hakstian, A. R., Forth, A. E., Hart, S. D., & Newman, J. P. (1990). The revised psychopathy checklist: Reliability and factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 25, 338–341.
 
22.
Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2006). The PCL-R assessment of psychopathy. Development, structural properties, and new directions. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 58–88). New York: The Guilford Press.
 
23.
Jackson, D. N., & Wroblewski, V. R. (2000). The impact of faking on employment tests: Does forced choice offer a solution? Human Performance, 13, 371–388.
 
24.
Klaver, J. R., Lee, Z., & Hart, S. D. (2007). Psychopathy and nonverbal indicators of deception in offenders. Law and Human Behavior, 31, 337–351.
 
25.
Kosson, D. S., Gacono, C. B., & Bodholdt, R. H. (2000). Assessing psychopathy: Interpersonal aspects and clinical interviewing. In C. B. Gacono (Ed.), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 203–230). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
26.
Lilienfeld, S. O. (1998). Methodological advances and developments in the assessment of psychopathy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 99–125.
 
27.
Lilienfeld, S. O., & Fowler, K. A. (2006). The self-report assessment of psychopathy. In Ch. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 107–132). New York: The Guilford Press.
 
28.
Lilienfeld, S. O., & Widows, M. R. (2005). Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised. Professional manual. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
 
29.
Lynam, D. R. (2002). Psychopathy from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality. In P. T. Costa & T. A. Widiger (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (pp. 325–348). Washington: American Psychological Association.
 
30.
Lynam, D. R., & Derefinko, K. J. (2006). Psychopaty and personality. In C. J. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 133–155). New York: The Guilford Press.
 
31.
MacNeil, B. M., & Holden, R. R. (2006). Psychopathy and the detection of faking on self-report inventories of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 641–651.
 
32.
McFarland, L. A., & Ryan, A. M. (2000). Variance in faking across noncognitive measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 812–821.
 
33.
McFarland, L. A., & Ryan, A. M. (2006). Toward an integrated model of applicant faking behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 979–1016.
 
34.
Meloy, J. R., & Gacono, C. B. (2000). Assessing psychopathy: Psychological testing and report writing. In C. B. Gacono (Ed.), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 231–250). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
35.
Miller, J.D., Lynam, D.R., Widiger, T.A., & Leukefeld, C. (2001). Personality disorders as extreme variants of common personality dimensions: Can the Five- Factor Model adequately represent psychopathy? Journal of Personality, 69, 253–276.
 
36.
Mullins-Sweatt, S. N., & Widiger, T. A. (2006). The five-factor model of personality disorder. In R. F. Krueger & J. L. Tackett (Eds.), Personality and psychopathology (pp. 39–70). New York: The Guilford Press.
 
37.
Neumann, C. S., Malterer, M. B., & Newman, J. P. (2008). Factor structure of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI): Findings from a large incarcerated sample. Psychological Assessment, 20, 169–174.
 
38.
Paluchowski, W. J. (2001). Diagnoza psychologiczna [Psychological assessment]. Warszawa: Scholar.
 
39.
Paulhus, D. L. (1984). Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 598–609.
 
40.
Paulhus, D. L. (1998). Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1197–1208.
 
41.
Paulhus, D. L. (2002). Socially desirable responding: The evolution of a construct. In H. I. Braun, D. N. Jackson, & D. E. Wiley (Eds.), The role of constructs in psychological and educational measurement (pp. 49–69). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.
 
42.
Paulhus, D. L., & Reid, D. (1991). Enhancement and denial in socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 307–317.
 
43.
Paulhus, D. L., & Holden, R. R. (2009). Measuring self-enhancement: From self-report to concrete behavior. In C. R. Agnew, D. E. Carlston, W. G. Graziano, & J. R. Kelly (Eds.), Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research (pp. 221–240). New York: Oxford University Press.
 
44.
R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Retrieved from https://www.R-project.org.
 
45.
Reise, S. P., & Oliver, C. J. (1994). Development of a California Q-set indicator of primary psychopathy. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 130–144.
 
46.
Reynolds, A., Richards, G., de la Iglesia, B., & Rayward-Smith, V. (1992). Clustering rules: A comparison of partitioning and hierarchical clustering algorithms. Journal of Mathematical Modelling and Algorithms, 5, 475–504. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s108....
 
47.
Rogers, R., & Cruise, K. R. (2000). Malingering and deception among psychopaths. In C. B. Gacono (Ed.), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 269–284). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
48.
Sanocki, W. (1970). Postawa wobec badania a wyniki inwentarza osobowości [Attitude towards the study and personality inventory scores]. Przegląd Penitencjarny, 27, 49–72.
 
49.
Sanocki, W. (1978). Kwestionariusze osobowości w psychologii [Personality questionnaires in psychology]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
 
50.
Seto, M. C., Khattar, N. A., Lalumiére, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (1997). Deception and sexual strategy in psychopathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 301–307.
 
51.
Siuta, J. (2006). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-PI-R Paula T. Costy Jr i Roberta R. McCrae [The NEO-PI-R Personality Inventory by Paul T. Costa Jr. and Robert R. McCrae. Polish adaptation: A manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych Polskiego Towarzystwa Psychologicznego.
 
52.
Snell, A. F., Sydell, E. J., & Lueke, S. B. (1999). Towards a theory of applicant faking: Integrating studies of deception. Human Resource Management Review, 9, 219–242.
 
53.
Widiger, T. A., & Lynam, D. R. (2003). Psychopathy and the five-factor model of personality. In Th. Millon, E. Simonsen, M. Birket-Smith, & R. D. Davis (Eds.), Psychopathy. Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior (pp. 171–187). New York: The Guilford Press.
 
54.
Witt, E. A., Donnellan, M. B., & Blonigen, D. M. (2009). Using existing self-report inventories to measure the psychopathic personality traits of fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 1006–1016.
 
55.
Zickar, M. J., & Robie, C. (1999). Modeling faking good on personality items: An item-level analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 551–563.
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192