Parenting style and locus of control, motivation, and school adaptation among students with borderline intellectual functioning
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2014-11-18
Acceptance date: 2014-11-18
Online publication date: 2014-12-24
Publication date: 2014-12-08
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2014;2(4):251–266
Parenting style impacts children’s psychosocial development. Students with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) are especially sensitive to the quality of parental care. The objective of this study was to compare parenting styles of mothers of children with BIF and mothers of typically developing peers, and establish associations between parenting styles and children’s psychosocial traits, which determine their school functioning.

Participants and procedure
Forty-two primary school students in Grades 4 to 6, their teachers, and mothers participated in the study. Based on their IQ level they comprised two groups: students with BIF (criterion group; n = 21) and students with average IQ (comparison group; n = 21). A series of measures were used to assess mothers’ parenting style and students’ psychosocial traits. Questionnaires measuring students’ psychosocial pro­perties were administered to children and their teachers in order to compare their perspectives.

Mothers of children with BIF in comparison to mothers in the control group presented greater inclinations towards over-parenting. Based on self-reports, students with BIF did not differ from their typically developing classmates in terms of school motivation, anxiety, locus of control, or social adjustment, despite their lower academic performance. According to teachers, students with BIF had significantly lower school motivation and delayed socialization. For students with BIF but not for the comparison group, a negative correlation was found between mothers’ tendency to dominate over their child and students’ locus of control and school motivation.

Children with BIF are especially sensitive to the quality of mothers’ parenting style, which can have an adverse effect on their school adjustment.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder – V. Washington: APA.
Ali, R., Akhter, A., Shahzad, S., Sultana, N., & Ramzan, M. (2011). The impact of motivation of student’s academic achievement in mathematics in problem based learning environment. International Journal of Academic Research, 3, 306-309.
Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261-271.
Artigas-Pallarés, J., Rigau-Ratera, E., García-Nonell, C. (2007). Capacidad de inteligencia límite y disfunción ejecutiva [Borderline Intellectual Functioning and executive disfunction]. Revista de Neurología, 44, 67-69.
Baldwin, D., McIntyre, A., & Hardaway, E. (2007). Perceived parenting styles on college students’ optimism. College Student Journal, 41, 550-557.
Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88.
Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monograph, 4, 1-103.
Bimler, D., & Kirkland, J. (2001). School truants and truancy motivation sorted out with multidimentional saling. Journal of Adolescence Research, 16, 75-102.
Bocsa, E. (2003). School adjustment of borderline intelligence pupils. Summary of doctoral thesis. Psychology and Education Department, University Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca.
Boekaerts, M. (1999). Self-regulated learning: where we are today International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 445-457.
Bebko, J. M., & Luhaorg, H. (1998). The development of strategy use and metacognitive processing in mental retardation: Some sources of difficulty. In: J. A. Burack, & R. M. Hodapp (eds.), Handbook of mental retardation and development (pp. 382-407). York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Chen, C. Y., Lawlor, J. P., Duggan, A. K., Hardy, J. B.,.
& Eaton, W. W. (2006). Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early Life and Mental Health Problems in Adulthood. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1772-1778.
Chorpita., B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3-21.
Chovan, W. L., & Morrison E. R. (1984). Correlates of self-concept among variant children. Psychological Reports, 54, 536-538.
Cohen, E., Biran, G., Aran, A., & Gross-Tsur, V. (2008b). Locus of control, perceived parenting style, and anxiety in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 20, 415-423.
Cohen, D. A., & Rice, J. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescent substance use, and academic achievement. Journal of Drug Education, 27, 199-211.
Cohen, E., Sade, M., Benarroch, F., Pollak, Y.,.
& Gross-Tsur, V. (2008a). Locus of control, perceived parentingstyle, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in children with Tourette’s syndrome. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 299-305.
Coolahan, K., McWayne, C., & Fantuzzo, J. (2002). Validation of multidimensional assessment of parenting styles for low income African-American families with preschool children. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17, 356-373.
Cooter, K. S., & Cooter, R. B. (2004). One size doesn’t fit all: Slow learners in the reading classroom. The Reading Teacher, 57, 680-684.
Costigan, C., Floyd, F., Harter, K., & McClintock, J. (1997). Family process and adaptation to children with mental retardation: Disruption and resilience in family problem-solving interactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 11, 515-529.
Crnic, K., & Greenberg, M. (1987). Maternal stress, social support, and coping: Influences on early mother-child relationship. In: C. Boukydis (ed.), Research on support for parents and infants in the postnatal period (pp. 25-40). NYJ: Ablex.
Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119-142.
Dekker, M. C., & Koot, H. M. (2003). DSM-IV disorders in children with borderline to moderate intellectual disability. II: child and family predictors. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 923-931.
Dembo, M. H. (1997). Educational psychology. Warsaw: WSiP.
Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 185-199.
Dilmaç, B., Hamarta, E., & Arslan, C. (2009). Analysing the trait anxiety and locus of control of undergraduates in terms of attachment styles. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 9, 143-159.
Drwal, R. Ł. (1978). Poczucie kontroli jako wymiar osobowości – podstawy teoretyczne, techniki badawcze, wyniki badań [Locus of control as a personality dimension]. In: L. Wołoszynowa (ed.), Materiały do nauczania psychologii. Seria III, t. 3 [Data for teaching psychology]. Warsaw: PWN.
Dusek, J. B. (1980). The development of test anxiety in children. In: I. G. Sarason (ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dyduch, E. (1999). Sytuacja dzieci z obniżoną sprawnością intelektualną w szkole podstawowej [Situation of children with low cognitive abilities in primary school]. Rocznik Naukowo-Dydaktyczny w Krakowie, Prace Pedagogiczne XXI.
Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 51-58.
Emerson, E., & Hatton, C. (2007). Mental health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Britain. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 493-499.
Fenning, R. M., Baker, J. K., Baker, B. L., & Crnic, K. A. (2007). Parenting children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A unique risk population. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 112, 107-121.
Floyd, F. J., Harter, K., & Costigan, C. (2004). Family problem-solving with children who have mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 109, 507-524.
Floyd, F. J., & Phillippe, K. A. (1993). Parental interactions with children with and without mental retardation: Behavior management, coerciveness, and positive exchanges. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 673-684.
Forehand, R., & Nousiainen, S. (1993). Maternal and paternal parenting: Critical dimensions in adolescent functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 7, 213-221.
Gadeyne, E., Ghesquiere, P., & Onghena, P. (2004). Psychosocial functioning of young children with learning problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 510-521.
Gfroerer, K., Kern, R., & Curlette, W. (2004). Research support for individual psychology’s parenting model. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61, 379-388.
Gindrych, P. (2002). Psychosocial functioning of children with developmental dyslexia. Lublin: UMCS.
Gonzalez, A. L., & Wolters, C. A. (2006). The relationship between perceived parenting practices and achievement motivation in mathematics. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21, 203-217.
Gottfried, A. E. (1982). Relationship between academic instrinsic motivation and anxiety in children and young adolescence. Journal of School Psychology, 20, 205-215.
Gottlieb, J., Alter, M., Gottlieb, B. W., & Wishner, J. (1994). Special education in urban America: It’s not justifiable for many. Journal of Special Education, 27, 453-465.
Grouzet, F. M. E., Vallerand, R. J., Thill, E. E., & Pro­vencher, P. J. (2004). From environmental factors to outcomes: A test of an integrated motivational sequence. Motivation and Emotion, 28, 331-346.
Hassiotis, A., Strydom, A., Hall, I., Ali, A., Lawrence-Smith, G., Meltzer, H., Head, J., & Bebbington, P. (2008). Psychiatric morbidity and social functioning among adults with borderline intelligence living in private households. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52, 95-106.
Hayes, S., Shackell, P., Mottram, P., & Lancaster, R. (2007). The prevalence of intellectual disability in a major UK prison. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 162-167.
Holloway, S. D., & Hess, R. D. (1985). Mothers’ and teachers’ attributions about children’s math performance. In: I. E. Sigel (ed.), Parental belief systems: The Psychological consequences for children. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Press.
Jacobsen, B., Lowery, B., & Du-Cette, J. (1986). Attributions of learning disabled children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 59-65.
Jankowska, A., Bogdanowicz, M., & Takagi, A. (2014). Stability of WISC-R scores in students with borderline intellectual functioning. Health Psychology Report, 2, 49-59.
Jones, D. C., Rickel, A. U., & Smith, R. L. (1980). Maternal child-rearing practices and social problem solving strategies among preschoolers. Developmental Psychology, 16, 241-242.
Kaisa, A., Hakan, S., & Jari-erik, N. (2000). Parenting styles and adolescents’ achievement strategies. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 205-222.
Kalechstein, A. D., & Nowicki, S., Jr. (1997). A meta-analytic examination of the relationship between control expectancies and academic achievement: An 11-year follow-up to Findley and Cooper. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123, 27-56.
Karende, S., Kanchan, S., & Kulkarni, M. (2008). Clinical and psychoeducational profile of children with borderline intellectual functioning. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 75, 795-800.
Kauffman, D., Gaston, E., Santa Lucia, R., Salcedo, O., Rendina-Gobioff, G., & Gadd, R. (2000). The relationship between parenting style and children’s adjustment: The parents’ perspective. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 231-245.
Kaznowski, K. (2004). Slow learners: Are educators leaving them behind? National Association of Secondary School Principals, 88, 31-45.
Kee, T. T. (2005). A cultural interpretation of locus of control, family and school experience, and school truancy – The case of Hong Kong. International Journal Adolesce and Youth, 124, 325-349.
Kinlaw, C. R., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Goldman-Fraser, J. (2001). Mothers’ achievement beliefs and behaviors and their children’s school readiness: A cultural comparison. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 493-506.
Kistner, J. A., Osborne, M., & LaVerrier, L. (1988). Causal attributions of learning disabled children: Developmental patterns and their relation to academic progress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 82-83.
Krasowicz, G., & Kurzyp-Wojnarska, A. (1987). Społeczne wyznaczniki poczucia kontroli następstw zdarzeń [Social determinants of locus of control over outcomes]. Educational Psychology, 30, 524-532.
Krasowicz, G., & Kurzyp-Wojnarska, A. (1990). Kwestionariusz do Badania Poczucia Kontroli KBPK [The Locus of Control Research Inventory]. Warsaw: PTP.
Kurzyp, A., & Krasowicz, G. (1989). Kwestionariusz Do Pomiaru Poczucia Kontroli u Młodzieży Dorastającej [Questionnair of Locus of Control in Adolescence]. In: R. Ł. Drwal (ed.), Techniki kwestionariuszowe w diagnostyce psychologicznej [Questionnaires in psychological assessment]. Lublin: University of Marii Curie-Skłodowska.
Lamborn, S. D., Mounts, N. S., Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Patterns of competences and adjustment among adolescence from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 62, 1049-1065.
Levine, M. (2003). Celebrating diverse minds. Educational Leadership, 61, 14-18.
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In: P. H. Mussen (ed.), E. M. Hetherington (vol. ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, personality, and social development. New York: Wiley.
Markowska, B., & Szafraniec, H. (1980). Podręcznik do “Arkusza Zachowania się Ucznia” B. Markowskiej [Children’s Behaviour Inventory Manual]. In: M. Choynowski (ed.), Testy psychologiczne w poradnictwie wychowawczo-zawodowym [Psychological tests in educational and vocational guidance]. Warsaw: PWN.
Marsh, H. W., & Yeung, A. S. (1997). The causal effects of academic self-concept on academic achievement: Structural equation models of longitudinal data. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 41-54.
Masi, G., Marcheschi, M., & Pfanner, P. (1998). Adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning: Psychopathological risk. Adolescence, 33, 425-434.
McCollum, J. A., Gooler, F. G., Appl, D. J., & Yates, T. J. (2001). PIWI: enhancing parent-child interaction as a foundation for an early intervention. Infant.
& Young Children, 14, 34-45.
McLeod, B. D., Wood, J. J., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Examining the association between parenting and childhood anxiety: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 155-172.
MacMillan, D. L., Gresham, F. M., Bocian, K. M.,.
& Lambros, K. (1998). Current plight of borderline students: Where do they belong? Education.
& Training in Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities, 33, 83-94.
Meesters, C., & Muris, P. (2004). Perceived parental rearing behavior and coping in young adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 513-522.
Mega, C., Ronconi, L., & De Beni, R. (2013). What makes a good student? How emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation contribute to academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106, 121-131.
Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2006). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: Associations with self-esteem, depression, and life satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 39-47.
Natale, K., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2009). Children’s school performance and their parents’ causal attributions to ability and effort: A longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 14-22.
Nesselroade, J. R., Musher-Eizenman, D. R., & Schmitz, B. (2002). Perceived control and academic performance: a comparison of high and low performing children on within person change patterns. International Journal.
of Behavioral Development, 26, 540-547.
Ninivaggi, F. (2005). Borderline intellectual functioning and academic problem. In: B. J. Sadock,.
& V. A. Sadock (eds.), Kaplan & Sadock’s comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (8th ed.). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Ninivaggi, F. J. (2008). Borderline intellectual functioning in children and adolescents. Devereux Glenholme School. http://www.theglenholmeschool.....
Nunn, G. D., & Parish, T. S. (1992). The psychosocial characteristics of at-risk high school students. Adolescence, 27, 435-441.
Obuchowska, I. (1981). Dynamika nerwic: psychologiczne aspekty zaburzeń nerwicowych u dzieci i młodzieży [The dynamics of neurosis: the psychological aspects of neurotic disorders in children and adolescents]. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.
Ostrander, R., & Herman, K. C. (2006). Potential cognitive, parenting and developmental mediators of the relationship between ADHD and depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74, 89-98.
Patock-Peckham, J. A., & Morgan-Lopez, A. A. (2006). College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 117-125.
Phillips, B. N., Pitcher, G. D., Worsham, M. E., & Mil-ler, S. C. (1980). Test anxiety and the school environment. In: I. G. Sarason (ed.), Test anxiety: Theory, research, and applications. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Pintrich, P. R., Anderman, E. M., & Klobucar, C. (1994). Intraindividual differences in motivation and cognition in students with and without learning disabilities. Jorunal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 360-370.
Pong, S., Johnston, J., & Chen, V. (2010). Authoritarian parenting and Asian adolescent school performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 34, 62-72.
Reitman, D., Rhode, P., Hupp, S. D. A., & Altobello, C. (2002). Development and validation of the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised. Journal of.
Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 24, 119-127.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Russell, S. T., Crockett, L. J, & Chao, R. K. (2010). Conclusions: The role of Asian America culture in parenting and parent-Adolescent relationships. In: S. T. Russell, L. J. Crockett, & K. Chao (eds.), Advancing responsible adolescent development: Asian American parenting and parent-adolescent relationships (pp. 117-128). Springer: New York.
Rytkönen, K., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2005). Parents’ causal attributions concerning their children’s school achievement: A longitudinal study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 51, 494-522.
Salvador-Carulla, L., García-Gutiérrez. J. C., Gutiérrez-Colosía, M. R., Artigas-Pallarès, J., García Ibáńez, J., González-Pérez, J., Nadal Pla, M., Aguilera Inés, F., Isus, S., Cereza, J. M., Poole, M., Portero Lazcano, G., Monzón, P., Leiva, M., Parellada, M., García Nonell, K., Martínez-Hernández, A., Rigau, E., & Martínez-Leal, R. (2013). Borderline Intellectual Functioning: Consensus and good practice guidelines. Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental, 6, 109-120.
Sangeeta, S. S., & Krishna, D. (2009). Impact of intervention package on mental abilities of 5-6 years old slow learners. Journal of Dairying Foods & Home Sciences, 28, 209-214.
Shaw, S. R. (2008). An educational programming framework for a subset of students with diverse learning needs: borderline intellectual functioning. Intervention in School and Clinic, 43, 291-299.
Shumow, L., Vandell, D. L., & Posner, J. K. (1998). Harsh, firm, and permissive parenting in low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 483-507.
Smith, C. L., Calkins, S. D., Keane, S. P., Anastopoulos, A. D., & Shelton, T. L. (2004). Predicting stability and change in toddler behavior problems: contributions of maternal behavior and child gender. Developmental Psychology, 40, 29-42.
Smith, D. E., & Moore, T. M. (2012). Parenting style and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 1, 1-15.
Spionek, H. (1973). Zaburzenia rozwoju uczniów a niepowodzenia szkolne [Students’ developmental disorders and school failure]. Warsaw: PWN.
Stevenson, H. W., Chen, C., & Uttal, D. H. (1990). Beliefs and achievement: A study of Black, White, and Hispanic children. Child Development, 61, 508-523.
Strage, A., & Brandt, T. S. (1999). Authoritative parenting and college students’ academic adjustment and success. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 146-456.
Suchman, N. E., Roundsaville, B., DeCoste, C., & Luthar, S. (2007). Parental control, parental warmth, and psychological adjustment in a sample of substance-abusing mothers and their school-aged and adolescent children. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 32, 1-10.
Swanson, J., Valiente, C., & Lemery-Chalfant, K. (2012). Predicting academic achievement from cumulative home risk: The mediating roles of effortful control, academic relationships, and school avoidance. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58, 375-408.
Tyszkowa, M. (1990). Zdolności, osobowość i działalność uczniów [Students’ abilities, personality and accomplishments]. Warsaw: PWN.
Valliant, G. E., & Davis, J. T. (2000). Social/emotional intelligence and midlife resilience in schoolboys with low tested intelligence. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 215-222.
Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246-260.
Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: the role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202-209.
Wenglinski, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality. Princeton, New York: Educational Testing Service.
Wigfield, A., & Cambria, J. (2010). Students‘ achievement values, goal orientations, and interest: definitions, development, and relations to achievement outcomes. Developmental Review, 30, 1-35.
World Health Organization (1994). International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). WHO: Geneva.
Wyczesany, J. (2004). Pedagogika upośledzonych umysłowo [Pedagogy of the intellectually disabled individuals]. Kraków: Impuls.
Ziemska, M. (1981). Kwestionariusz dla Rodziców do Badania Postaw Rodzicielskich [Parenting Style Inventory]. Warsaw: PWN.
Ziemska, M. (1977). Rodzina a osobowość [Family and personality]. Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna.
Zwierzyńska, E., & Matuszewski, A. (2006). Kwestionariusze „Klasa wobec mnie”, „Ja wobec klasy” [Questionnaire „My Classroom and I”]. Warsaw: CMPPP.
Zwierzyńska, E., & Matuszewski, A. (2006). Skala jawnego niepokoju „Jaki jesteś?” E. Skrzypek i M. Choynowskiego [Skrzypek & Choynowski’s scale of explicit anxiety “What are you like?”]. Warsaw: CMPPP.