RESEARCH PAPER
Adaptation of the Four Forms of Employee Silence Scale in a Polish sample
 
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Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2017-02-18
Final revision date: 2017-04-05
Acceptance date: 2017-04-13
Online publication date: 2017-06-13
Publication date: 2017-12-01
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2017;5(4):303–312
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background
Silence is understood as a decision not to speak up in situations of observed irregularities both in productivity and ethics. The study examined the validity of the Four Forms of Employee Silence Scale (FFESS) in the Polish population. The scale is a four-factor measure designed to capture differently motivated tendencies to be silent in organizations. The scale distinguishes acquiescent, quiescent, prosocial and opportunistic silence. Employee silence has been linked to many important individual outcomes: failure to react to ethical transgressions, stress and depression, and lower creativity and productivity.

Participants and procedure
A total of 1044 employees of various organizations working for at least six months at a given position provided the responses for the validation study.

Results
The results confirmed the superiority of the four-factor model shown by adequate fit indexes: The FFESS has adequate internal consistency at both the scale and item levels. The criterion-related validity of the scale was established by correlating four forms of silence with measures of emotional attitude toward organization, procedural justice, relational contract and turnover intention.

Conclusions
The four forms of employee silence are empirically distinct concepts in the Polish sample. The scale may be used as the measurement of individual differences. It can also serve as a tool for diagnosing a climate of silence in an organization.
 
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