RESEARCH PAPER
Mediating role of neuroticism between early maladaptive schemas and negative emotionality
 
More details
Hide details
1
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
2
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2019-04-23
Final revision date: 2019-09-05
Acceptance date: 2019-09-13
Online publication date: 2019-10-08
Publication date: 2019-11-04
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2019;7(3):220–231
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The study contributes to the understanding of the relation between neuroticism, early maladaptive schemas and negative emo-tionality. Various studies of schemas and neuroticism with the connection of negative emotionality do not give an answer to the question how these three variables co-exist with each other. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether neuroti-cism strengthens the effect of schemas in the prediction of intensity of anxiety and depression, or whether the roles of these variables are independent of each other.

Participants and procedure:
493 healthy participants were included in the study, where 66% were female respondents and the age range was 16-61 years of age (M = 31.00, SD = 11.96). The Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version (YSQ-S3), the Revised Personality In-ventory (NEO PI-R) by Costa and McCrae and the Personality Inventory (SPI, TPI by Spielberger & Reheiser) were used.

Results:
The results show a strong relationship between Rejection and Disconnection schemas and negative emotionality, strongly medi-ated by neuroticism. The trigger for the trait of neuroticism is the intensification of depressive traits, understood as a set of emo-tional symptoms, i.e. a high level of anxiety, experiencing frequent anger towards oneself, and simultaneously a strong sense of guilt for negative thoughts resulting in a sense of hopelessness.

Conclusions:
Most of the problems leading to anxiety or depression symptoms originate in schemas of Rejection and Disconnection and neu-roticism is a strong mediator for negative emotionality.

 
REFERENCES (28)
1.
Açmaz, G., Albayrak, E., Acmaz, B., Başer, M., Soyak, M., Zararsız, G., & IpekMüderris, I. (2013). Level of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, social anxiety, and quality of life among the women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/8....
 
2.
Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psy-chologist, 46, 333–341. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-0....
 
3.
Arthurs, S. D., & Tan, J. C. H. (2017). Personality traits, early maladaptive schemas, and severity of nonsuicidal self-injury. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 22, 181–192. https://doi.org/10.24839/2325-....
 
4.
Bahramizadeh, H., & Ehsan, H. B. (2011). The Evaluation of prediction potential neuroticism and extraversion according to early maladaptive schemas. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 524–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
5.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
6.
Calvete, E. (2014). Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: Contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 735–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chia....
 
7.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Diez, Z. (2013). An examination of the structure and stability of early mala-daptive schemas by means of the Young Schema Questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological As-sessment, 29, 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5....
 
8.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). A longitudinal test of the vulnerability-stress model with early mal-adaptive schemas for depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37, 85–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862....
 
9.
Camara, M., & Calvete, E. (2012). Cognitive schemas predicting anxiety and depressive symptoms: the role of dysfunctional coping strategies. European Psychiatry, 27, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-....
 
10.
Cinar, N., Kizilarslanoglu, M. C., Harmanci, A., Aksoy, D. Y., Bozdag, G., Demir, B., & Yildiz, B. O. (2011). De-pression, anxiety and cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction, 26, 3339–3345. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep....
 
11.
Clark, D. A., & Steer, R. A. (1996). Empirical status of the cognitive model of anxiety and depression. In P. M. Salkovskis & P. M. (Eds.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 75–96). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
12.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of de-pression: examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 28, 309–345. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COTR....
 
13.
Iacobucci, D. (2010). Structural equations modeling: Fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20, 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps....
 
14.
Krepula, K., Bidzinska-Speichert, B., Lenarcik, A., & Tworowska-Bardzinska, U. (2012). Quality of life and the frequency of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS. Presented et 15th International & 14th European Congress of Endocrinology. Endocrine Abstracts, 29, P948.
 
15.
Mairet, K., Boag, S., & Warburton, W. (2014). How Important is temperament? The relationship between coping styles, early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 14, 171–190.
 
16.
Oettingen, J., Chodkiewicz, J., Mącik, D., & Gruszczyńska, E. (2018). Polish adaptation of the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 short form (YSQ-S3-PL). Psychiatria Polska, 52, 707–718. https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/On....
 
17.
Oleś, P., Brygoła, E., & Sibińska, M. (2010). Temporal dialogues and their influence on affective states and the meaning of life. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 4, 23–43.
 
18.
Padesky, C. A., & Greenberger, D. (1995). Clinicians guide to mind over mood. New York, NY: Guilford.
 
19.
Siuta, J. (2006). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-PI-R Paula T. Costy i Roberta R. McCrae. Adaptacja polska. Pod-ręcznik [The Personality Inventory NEO-PI-R by Paul T. Costa and Robert R. McCrae. Polish adaptation. Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
20.
Siuta, J. (Ed.) (2009). Diagnoza osobowości. Inwentarz NEO-PI-R w teorii i praktyce [Personality diagnosis. NEO-PI-R inventory in theory and practice]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
21.
Spielberger, C. D., & Reheiser, E. C. (2003). Measuring anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity as emotional states and personality traits with the STAI, STAXI, and STPI. In M. Hersen, M. J. Hilsenroth, & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of psychological assessment (Vol. 2, pp. 70–86). Hoboken, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
 
22.
Spielberger, C. D., & Reheiser, E. C. (2009). Assessment of emotions: Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1, 271–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758....
 
23.
Stefanaki, C., Bacopoulou, F., Livadas, S., Kandaraki, A., Karachalios, A., Chrousos, G. P., & Diamanti-Kandarakis, E. (2014). Impact of a mindfulness stress management program on stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Stress, 18, 57–66. https://doi.org/10.3109/102538....
 
24.
Thimm, J. C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy And Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 373–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbte....
 
25.
Weinstock, L. M., & Whisman, M. A. (2006). Neuroticism as a common feature of the depressive and anxiety disorders: A test of the revised integrative hierarchical model in a national sample. Journal of Abnormal Psy-chology, 115, 68–74. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-8....
 
26.
Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
 
27.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
28.
Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwińska, M. (1998). Inwentarz osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Adaptacja polska [Personality Inventory NEO-FFI Costa & McCrae. Polish adaptation]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
Copyright: © Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk This is an Open Access journal, all articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/), allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, provided the original work is properly cited and states its license.
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192