RESEARCH PAPER
Short Polish version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale – exploring its multidimensional structure in a sample of emerging adults
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Economics and Innovation, Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2021-02-24
Final revision date: 2021-05-05
Acceptance date: 2021-05-11
Online publication date: 2021-06-28
Publication date: 2022-04-29
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is a heritable trait and persons who are characterized by a high level of it are termed highly sensitive. The first and the most frequently used scale developed to measure high sensitivity is the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS), which has become increasingly popular and has been adapted to many languages in recent years. The present article forms a part of the publications which deal with the subject of tool adaptation and the exploration of their structure.

Material and methods:
This article presents the results of research conducted on a Polish sample of emerging adults consisting of 470 persons. The aim of this study is to further analyse the psychometric properties of the HSPS, as well as to provide initial evidence for the properties of the scale on a Polish sample. The analyses conducted to date have been extended and the item response theory (IRT) model has been included. Also, a proposal for a shortened scale is presented.

Results:
The results show that the Polish version of the HSPS constitutes a reliable method whose validity is proven by correlations with the Pavlovian Temperament Survey as well as being a reliable measure of the SPS construct.

Conclusions:
The results obtained support the multi-factor structure of the scale. There is a need for further analysis of the cultural aspect in sensitivity studies as well as for exploring gender differences.

 
REFERENCES (48)
1.
Acevedo, B. P., Aron, E. N., Aron, A., Sangster, M. D., Collins, N., & Brown, L. L. (2014). The highly sensitive brain: an fMRI study of sensory processing sensitivity and response to others’ emotions. Brain and Behavior, 4, 580–594. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2....
 
2.
Aron, E. N., & Aron, A. (1997). Sensory processing sensitivity and its relation to introversion and emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 345–368. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
3.
Aron, E. N., Aron, A., & Jagiellowicz, J. (2012). Sensory processing sensitivity: a review in the light of the evolution of biological responsivity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16, 262–282. https://doi.org/10.1177/108886....
 
4.
Benham, G. (2006). The highly sensitive person: Stress and physical symptom reports. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1433–1440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
5.
Blach, C., & Egger, J. W. (2014). Highly sensitive persons – an empirical investigation to a complex phenomenon. Psychological Medicine, 25, 4–16.
 
6.
Booth, C., Standage, H., & Fox, E. (2015). Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 24–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
7.
Brindle, K., Moulding, R., Bakker, K., & Nedeljkovic, M. (2015). Is the relationship between sensory-processing sensitivity and negative affect mediated by emotional regulation? Australian Journal of Psychology, 67, 214–221. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.1....
 
8.
Cheek, J. M., Bourgeois, M. L., Theran, S. A., Grimes, J. O., & Norem, J. K. (2009, February). Interpreting the factors of the Highly Sensitive Person scale. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Tampa, FL.
 
9.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
10.
Dimitrov, D. M. (2011). Statistical methods for validation of assessment scale data in counseling and related fields. American Counseling Association.
 
11.
Ellis, B. J., Boyce, W. T., Belsky, J., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & Van Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2011). Differential susceptibility to the environment: an evolutionary- neurodevelopmental theory. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 7–28. https://doi.org/10.1017/S09545....
 
12.
Ershova, R. V., Yarmotz, E. V., Koryagina, T. M., Semeniak, I. V., Shlyakhta, D. A., & Tarnow, E. (2018). A psychometric evaluation of the highly sensitive person scale: The components of sensory-processing sensitivity. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 15, em96. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/....
 
13.
Evans, D. E., & Rothbart, M. K. (2008). Temperamental sensitivity: Two constructs or one? Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 108–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
14.
Evers, A., Rasche, J., & Schabracq, M. J. (2008). High sensory-processing sensitivity at work. International Journal of Stress Management, 15, 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5....
 
15.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175–191. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf0319....
 
16.
Greven, C. U., Lionetti, F., Booth, C., Aron, E. N., Fox, E., Schendan, H. E., Pluess, M., Bruining, H., Acevedo, B., Bijttebier, P., & Homberg, J. (2019). Sensory processing sensitivity in the context of environmental sensitivity: a critical review and development of research agenda. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 98, 287–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neub....
 
17.
Grimen, H. L., & Diseth, Å. (2016). Sensory processing sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and their relationships to personality and subjective health complaints. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 123, 637–653. https://doi.org/10.1177/003151....
 
18.
Hofmann, S. G., & Bitran, S. (2007). Sensory-processing sensitivity in social anxiety disorder: Relationship to harm avoidance and diagnostic subtypes. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 944–954. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janx....
 
19.
Jiang, S., Wang, C., & Weiss, D. J. (2016). Sample size requirements for estimation of item parameters in the multidimensional graded response model. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 109. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.....
 
20.
Konrad, S., & Herzberg, P. Y. (2017). Psychometric properties and validation of a German High Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS-G). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 35, 364–378. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5....
 
21.
Kyriazos, T. (2018). Applied psychometrics: Sample size and sample power considerations in factor analysis (EFA, CFA) and SEM in general. Psychology, 9, 2207–2230. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.....
 
22.
Ledesma, R. D., Valero-Mora, P., & Macbeth, G. (2015). The scree test and the number of factors: a dynamic graphics approach. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 18, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1017/sjp.20....
 
23.
Lionetti, F., Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Burns, G. L., Jagiellowicz, J., & Pluess, M. (2018). Dandelions, tulips and orchids: Evidence for the existence of low-sensitive, medium-sensitive and high-sensitive individuals. Translational Psychiatry, 8, 24. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398....
 
24.
MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods, 1, 130–149. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-9....
 
25.
May, A. K., Norris, S. A., Richter, L. M., & Pitman, M. M. (2020). A psychometric evaluation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale in ethnically and culturally heterogeneous South African samples. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
26.
Meyer, B., Ajchenbrenner, M., & Bowles, D. P. (2005). Sensory sensitivity, attachment experiences, and rejection responses among adults with borderline and avoidant features. Journal of Personality Disorders, 19, 641–658. https://doi.org/10.1521/pedi.2....
 
27.
Montoya-Pérez, K. S., Ortega, J. I. M., Montes-Delgado, R., Padrós-Blázquez, F., Chiapas, J. M. de la R., & Montoya-Pérez, R. (2019). Psychometric properties of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale in Mexican population. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 12, 1081–1086. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S....
 
28.
Neal, J. A., Edelmann, R. J., & Glachan, M. (2002). Behavioural inhibition and symptoms of anxiety and depression: Is there a specific relationship with social phobia? The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 361–374. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466....
 
29.
Oxtoby, J., King, R., Sheridan, J., & Obst, P. (2016). Psychometric analysis of the Multidimensional State Boredom Scale and its condensed versions. Assessment, 25, 826–840. https://doi.org/10.1177/107319....
 
30.
Pluess, M. (2015). Individual differences in environmental sensitivity. Child Development Perspectives, 9, 138–143. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.1....
 
31.
Pluess, M., Assary, E., Lionetti, F., Lester, K. J., Krapohl, E., Aron, E. N., & Aron, A. (2018). Environmental sensitivity in children: Development of the highly sensitive child scale and identification of sensitivity groups. Developmental Psychology, 54, 51–70. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev000....
 
32.
Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2010). Differential susceptibility to parenting and quality child care. Developmental Psychology, 46, 379–390. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00152....
 
33.
Pluess, M., & Boniwell, I. (2015). Sensory-processing sensitivity predicts treatment response to a school-based depression prevention program: Evidence of vantage sensitivity. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 40–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
34.
Reise, S. P., & Yu, J. (1990). Parameter recovery in the graded response model using MULTILOG. Journal of Educational Measurement, 27, 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745....
 
35.
Rinn, A. N., Mullet, D. R., Jett, N., & Nyikos, T. (2018). Sensory processing sensitivity among high-ability individuals: a psychometric evaluation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale. Roeper Review, 40, 166–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/027831....
 
36.
Rubaltelli, E., Scrimin, S., Moscardino, U., Priolo, G., & Buodo, G. (2018). Media exposure to terrorism and people’s risk perception: The role of environmental sensitivity and psychophysiological response to stress. British Journal of Psychology, 109, 656–673. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.1....
 
37.
Şengül-İnal, G., & Sümer, N. (2017). Exploring the multidimensional structure of sensory processing sensitivity in Turkish samples. Current Psychology, 39, 194–206. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144....
 
38.
Shakiba, N., Ellis, B., Bush, N., & Boyce, W. (2019). Biological sensitivity to context: a test of the hypothesized U-shaped relation between early adversity and stress responsivity. Development and Psychopathology, 32, 641–660. https://doi.org/10.1017/S09545....
 
39.
Slagt, M., Dubas, J. S., Deković, M., & van Aken, M. A. G. (2016). Differences in sensitivity to parenting depending on child temperament: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 142, 1068–1110. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul000....
 
40.
Slagt, M., Dubas, J. S., Ellis, B. J., Van Aken, M. A. G., & Deković, M. (2018a). Linking emotional reactivity “for better and for worse” to differential susceptibility to parenting among kindergartners. Development and Psychopathology, 31, 741–758. https://doi.org/10.1017/S09545....
 
41.
Slagt, M., Dubas, J. S., van Aken, M. A. G., Ellis, B. J., & Deković, M. (2018b). Sensory processing sensitivity as a marker of differential susceptibility to parenting. Developmental Psychology, 54, 543–558. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev000....
 
42.
Smolewska, K. A., McCabe, S. B., & Woody, E. Z. (2006). A psychometric evaluation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale: The components of sensory-processing sensitivity and their relation to the BIS/BAS and Big Five. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 1269–1279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid....
 
43.
Strelau, J. (1983). Temperament – Personality – Activity. Academic Press.
 
44.
Strelau, J., & Zawadzki, B. (2018). Pavlovian Temperament Survey. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences (pp. 1–10). Springer.
 
45.
Tillmann, T., El Matany, K., & Duttweiler, H. (2018). Measuring environmental sensitivity in educational contexts: a validation study with German-speaking students. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 8, 17–28. https://doi.org/10.5539/jedp.v....
 
46.
Worthington, R. L., & Whittaker, T. A. (2006). Scale development research: a content analysis and recommendations for best practices. Counseling Psychologist, 34(6), 806–838. https://doi.org/10.1177/001100....
 
47.
Yano, K., Kase, T., & Oishi, K. (2020). Sensory processing sensitivity moderates the relationships between life skills and depressive tendencies in university students. Japanese Psychological Research. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpr.12....
 
48.
Þórarinsdóttir, Þ. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and its relationship to the Big Five personality traits in a sample of Icelandic university students (Bachelor’s thesis). University of Reykjavik.
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192