RESEARCH PAPER
Mediating role of neuroticism between early maladaptive schemas and negative emotionality
 
More details
Hide details
1
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
2
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2019-04-23
Final revision date: 2019-09-05
Acceptance date: 2019-09-13
Online publication date: 2019-10-08
Publication date: 2019-11-04
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2019;7(3):220–231
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The study contributes to the understanding of the relation between neuroticism, early maladaptive schemas and negative emo-tionality. Various studies of schemas and neuroticism with the connection of negative emotionality do not give an answer to the question how these three variables co-exist with each other. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether neuroti-cism strengthens the effect of schemas in the prediction of intensity of anxiety and depression, or whether the roles of these variables are independent of each other.

Participants and procedure:
493 healthy participants were included in the study, where 66% were female respondents and the age range was 16-61 years of age (M = 31.00, SD = 11.96). The Young Schema Questionnaire Short Form Version (YSQ-S3), the Revised Personality In-ventory (NEO PI-R) by Costa and McCrae and the Personality Inventory (SPI, TPI by Spielberger & Reheiser) were used.

Results:
The results show a strong relationship between Rejection and Disconnection schemas and negative emotionality, strongly medi-ated by neuroticism. The trigger for the trait of neuroticism is the intensification of depressive traits, understood as a set of emo-tional symptoms, i.e. a high level of anxiety, experiencing frequent anger towards oneself, and simultaneously a strong sense of guilt for negative thoughts resulting in a sense of hopelessness.

Conclusions:
Most of the problems leading to anxiety or depression symptoms originate in schemas of Rejection and Disconnection and neu-roticism is a strong mediator for negative emotionality.

 
REFERENCES (28)
1.
Açmaz, G., Albayrak, E., Acmaz, B., Başer, M., Soyak, M., Zararsız, G., & IpekMüderris, I. (2013). Level of anxiety, depression, self-esteem, social anxiety, and quality of life among the women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/8....
 
2.
Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psy-chologist, 46, 333–341. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-0....
 
3.
Arthurs, S. D., & Tan, J. C. H. (2017). Personality traits, early maladaptive schemas, and severity of nonsuicidal self-injury. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 22, 181–192. https://doi.org/10.24839/2325-....
 
4.
Bahramizadeh, H., & Ehsan, H. B. (2011). The Evaluation of prediction potential neuroticism and extraversion according to early maladaptive schemas. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 524–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbsp....
 
5.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
6.
Calvete, E. (2014). Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: Contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 735–746. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chia....
 
7.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & González-Diez, Z. (2013). An examination of the structure and stability of early mala-daptive schemas by means of the Young Schema Questionnaire-3. European Journal of Psychological As-sessment, 29, 283–290. https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5....
 
8.
Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Hankin, B. L. (2015). A longitudinal test of the vulnerability-stress model with early mal-adaptive schemas for depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 37, 85–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10862....
 
9.
Camara, M., & Calvete, E. (2012). Cognitive schemas predicting anxiety and depressive symptoms: the role of dysfunctional coping strategies. European Psychiatry, 27, 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-....
 
10.
Cinar, N., Kizilarslanoglu, M. C., Harmanci, A., Aksoy, D. Y., Bozdag, G., Demir, B., & Yildiz, B. O. (2011). De-pression, anxiety and cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome. Human Reproduction, 26, 3339–3345. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep....
 
11.
Clark, D. A., & Steer, R. A. (1996). Empirical status of the cognitive model of anxiety and depression. In P. M. Salkovskis & P. M. (Eds.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 75–96). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
12.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of de-pression: examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 28, 309–345. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:COTR....
 
13.
Iacobucci, D. (2010). Structural equations modeling: Fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20, 90-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps....
 
14.
Krepula, K., Bidzinska-Speichert, B., Lenarcik, A., & Tworowska-Bardzinska, U. (2012). Quality of life and the frequency of anxiety and depression in women with PCOS. Presented et 15th International & 14th European Congress of Endocrinology. Endocrine Abstracts, 29, P948.
 
15.
Mairet, K., Boag, S., & Warburton, W. (2014). How Important is temperament? The relationship between coping styles, early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 14, 171–190.
 
16.
Oettingen, J., Chodkiewicz, J., Mącik, D., & Gruszczyńska, E. (2018). Polish adaptation of the Young Schema Questionnaire 3 short form (YSQ-S3-PL). Psychiatria Polska, 52, 707–718. https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/On....
 
17.
Oleś, P., Brygoła, E., & Sibińska, M. (2010). Temporal dialogues and their influence on affective states and the meaning of life. International Journal for Dialogical Science, 4, 23–43.
 
18.
Padesky, C. A., & Greenberger, D. (1995). Clinicians guide to mind over mood. New York, NY: Guilford.
 
19.
Siuta, J. (2006). Inwentarz Osobowości NEO-PI-R Paula T. Costy i Roberta R. McCrae. Adaptacja polska. Pod-ręcznik [The Personality Inventory NEO-PI-R by Paul T. Costa and Robert R. McCrae. Polish adaptation. Manual]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
20.
Siuta, J. (Ed.) (2009). Diagnoza osobowości. Inwentarz NEO-PI-R w teorii i praktyce [Personality diagnosis. NEO-PI-R inventory in theory and practice]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
21.
Spielberger, C. D., & Reheiser, E. C. (2003). Measuring anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity as emotional states and personality traits with the STAI, STAXI, and STPI. In M. Hersen, M. J. Hilsenroth, & D. L. Segal (Eds.), Comprehensive Handbook of psychological assessment (Vol. 2, pp. 70–86). Hoboken, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
 
22.
Spielberger, C. D., & Reheiser, E. C. (2009). Assessment of emotions: Anxiety, anger, depression, and curiosity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 1, 271–302. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1758....
 
23.
Stefanaki, C., Bacopoulou, F., Livadas, S., Kandaraki, A., Karachalios, A., Chrousos, G. P., & Diamanti-Kandarakis, E. (2014). Impact of a mindfulness stress management program on stress, anxiety, depression and quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Stress, 18, 57–66. https://doi.org/10.3109/102538....
 
24.
Thimm, J. C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy And Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 373–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbte....
 
25.
Weinstock, L. M., & Whisman, M. A. (2006). Neuroticism as a common feature of the depressive and anxiety disorders: A test of the revised integrative hierarchical model in a national sample. Journal of Abnormal Psy-chology, 115, 68–74. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-8....
 
26.
Wells, A. (1997). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: A practice manual and conceptual guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
 
27.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
 
28.
Zawadzki, B., Strelau, J., Szczepaniak, P., & Śliwińska, M. (1998). Inwentarz osobowości NEO-FFI Costy i McCrae. Adaptacja polska [Personality Inventory NEO-FFI Costa & McCrae. Polish adaptation]. Warszawa: Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP.
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192