Family resilience – definition of construct and preliminary results of the Polish adaptation of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS)
More details
Hide details
Institute of Psychology, University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland
Submission date: 2017-02-02
Final revision date: 2017-03-17
Acceptance date: 2017-03-25
Online publication date: 2017-05-24
Publication date: 2017-12-01
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2017;5(4):313–322
The article describes construct of family resilience with the main focus on the model Walsh. The aim of this article is to present preliminary results: adaptation, reliability, statistical analyses of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS) for the Polish population.

Participants and procedure
Participants (n = 329), aged 18-35, completed experimental Polish version of the FRAS (SPR – Skala Prężności Rodzinnej). In the procedure of adaptation, scale was translated and modified into Polish. Scale consists of the following subscales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Utilizing Social and Economic Resources, Maintaining a Positive Outlook, Family Connectedness, Family Spirituality and Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity.

The reliability of the experimental Polish version of the FRAS for the entire scale and five subscales are satisfactory. Only subscale Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity obtained reliability of less than 0.7. Taking into account the diversity of gender and declaring the passage through the difficult events were observed significant differences in the three scales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Family Connectedness, Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity and total scale of FRAS.

The work on the questionnaire is still in progress and the results presented here should be considered as preliminary. In the next steps, the number of men should be increased in order to perform confirmatory factor analysis. Future studies should take into account a number of factors and contexts (e.g. family structure, social and cultural context and the type of stressful event).
Bayat, M. (2007). Evidence of resilience in families of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual Dis­ability Research, 51, 702–714. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2788. 2007.00960.x.
Becvar, D. S. (2013). Facilitating family resilience in clinical practice. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 51–64). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_4.
Boss, P. (2013). Resilience as tolerance for ambiguity. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 285–297). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_17.
Bostan, C. M. (2014). Translation, adaptation and validation on Romanian population of FRAS instrument for family resilience concept. Communication, Context, Interdisciplinarity, 3, 351–359. Retrieved from
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Brzezińska, A. I. (ed.). (2013). Psychologiczne portrety człowieka. Praktyczna psychologia rozwojowa [Psychological portraits of human. Practical developmental psychology]. Sopot: Gdańskie Wydaw­nictwo Psychologiczne.
Carter, B., McGoldrick, M. (1989). Overview: The Changing Family Life Cycle – A Framework for Family Therapy. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (eds.), The Changing Family Life Cycle. Boston-London-Sydney-Tokyo: Allyn and Bacon, 3–28.
Chun, C. A., Moos, R. H., & Cronkite, R. C. (2006). Culture: A fundamental context for the stress and coping paradigm. In P. T. P. Wong & L. C. J. Wong (eds.), Handbook of multicultural perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 29–53). New York: Springer.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L., & Russell, L. T. (2013). Resilience in stepfamilies. In D. S. Becvar (ed.) Handbook of family resilience (pp. 85–103). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/ 978-1-4614-3917-2_6.
Cripe, C. T. (2013). Family resilience, parental resilience and stress mediation in families with autistic children [Dissertation]. Retrieved from FMT=ABS.
DeHaan, L. G., Hawley, D. R., & Deal, J. E. (2013). Operationalizing family resilience as process: Proposed methodological strategies. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 17–29). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_2.
Dimech, S. (2014). Validating the Family Resilience Assessment Scale to Maltese families [Master’s thesis Abstract ]. University of Malta. Abstract retrieved from
Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster Family Assessment Device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171–180. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0606.1983.tb01497.x.
Fernandez, I. T., Schwartz, J. P., Chun, H., & Dickson, G. (2013). Family resilience and parenting. In D. S. Be­cvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 119–136). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_8.
Gąsior, K. (2012). Funkcjonowanie noo-psychospołeczne i problemy psychiczne dorosłych dzieci alkoholików [The functioning of the noo-psychosocial and mental health problems of adult children of alcoholics]. Warsaw: Difin.
Gąsior, K. (2014). Prężność rodzinna – nowe wyzwanie dla profilaktyki [Family resilience – new challenge for the prevention]. Resocjalizacja Polska [Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation], 6, 79–88.
Greeff, A. P. & Human, B. (2013). Family resilience relative to parental death. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 321–337). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/ 978-1-4614-3917-2_19.
Greeff, A. P. & Ritman, I. N. (2005). Individual Characteristics Associated With Resilience in Single-Parent Families [Abstract]. Psychological Reports, 96, 36–42. doi: 10.2466/PR0.96.1.36-42.
Hartshorne, T. S., Schafer, A., Stratton, K. K., & Nacarato, T. M. (2013). Family resilience relative to children with severe disabilities. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 361–383). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_21.
Hawley, D. R. & DeHaan, L. (1996). Toward a definition of family resilience: Integrating life-span and family perspectives. Family Process, 35, 283–298. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.1996.00283.x.
Kaya, M. & Arici, N. (2012). Turkish Version of Shortened Family Resiliency Scale (FRAS): The Study of Validity and Reliability. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 55, 512–550. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.531.
Lachowska, B. (2012). Praca i rodzina – konflikt czy synergia? [Work and family – conflict or synergy?]. Lublin: Wydawnictwo KUL.
Lachowska, B. (2014). Pozytywna psychologia rodziny – w teorii i praktyce [Positive psychology of the family – in theory and practice]. In I. Janicka & H. Liberska (eds.), Psychologia rodziny [Psychology of the family] (pp. 535–565). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Lavee, Y., Olson, D., & McCubbin, H. (1987). The effect of stressful life events and transitions on family functioning and well-being. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 49, 857–873.
Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Zhang, J., Lou, F., & Cao, F. (2016). Psychometric properties of the shortened Chinese version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1–8. doi: 10.1007/s10826-016-0432-7.
McCubbin, H., & McCubbin, M. (1988). Typologies of resilient families: emerging roles of social class and ethnicity. Family Relations, 37, 247–254.
McCubbin, H. I., Thompson, A. I., & McCubbin, M. A. (1996). Family assessment: Resiliency, coping and adaptation : inventories for research and practice. Madison: University of Wisconsin Publishers.
McCubbin, L. D. & McCubbin, H. I. (2013). Resilience in ethnic family systems: A relational theory for research and practice. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 175–195). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_11.
Nichols, W. C. (2013). Roads to understanding family resilience: 1920s to the twenty-first century. In D. S. Becvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 3–16). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_1.
Openshaw, K. P. (2011). The Relationship Between Family Functioning, Family Resilience, and Quality of Life Among Vocational Rehabilitation Clients (Dissertation). Retrieved from
Patterson, J. (2002). Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 349–360.
Plumb, J. A. (2011). The impact of social support and family resilience on parental stress in families with a child diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (Dissertation. Paper 14). Retrieved from
Rahimian, E., Zadech Mohammadi, A., & Pakdaman. S. (2015). Effectiveness of art therapy based on unity oriented approach on family resiliency of adolescent having unsuitable parenting. Trends in Life Sciences. An International Peer-Revieved Journal, 4, 400–403. Retrieved from
Reker, G. T. (2005). Meaning in life of young, middle-aged, and older adults: Factorial validity, age, and gender invariance of the Personal Meaning Index (PMI). Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 71–85. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2004.03.010.
Ruszkiewicz, D. (2013). Narzeczeństwo w procesie tworzenia małżeństwa – empiryczny zarys problemu [Betrothal period in the process of marriage – empirical outline of the problem]. Piotrków Trybunalski: Naukowe Wydawnictwo Piotrkowskie przy Filii Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego.
Seo, S. J., & Jung, M. S. (2013). Effect of Family Flexibility on the Idea of Adolescents Suicide-The Senior Year of High school Boys. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association, 13, 262–274. Retrieved from
Simelane, A. (2015). The role of resilience and socio-economic status in the parenting of children with autism spectrum disorder in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
Sixbey, M. T. (2005). Development of the family resilience assessment scale to identify family resilience constructs [Master’s thesis]. Retrieved from
Suk-Ja, Y. & Hee-Jeong, K. (2013). The relations between Parent – Adolescent Communication and Family Resilience of University Students. The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, 11, 23–40. Retrieved from
Teixeira, A. V. B. (2015). Resiliência e stresse em pais de crianças com perturbações do espetro do autism (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from
Van Breda, A. D. (2001). Resilience review: A literature review. Pretoria: South African Mental Health Service. Retrieved August 9, 2010, from
Walsh, F. (1996). The concept of family resilience: Crisis and challenge. Family Process, 35, 261–281.
Walsh, F. (2002). A family resilience framework: Innovative practice applications. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 51, 130–137. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3729.2002.00130.x.
Walsh, F. (2003). Family resilience: A framework for clinical practice. Family Process, 42, 1–18. doi: 10.1111/ j.1545-5300.2003.00001.x.
Walsh, F. (2006). Strengthening Family Resilience (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Walsh, F. (2010). Spiritual diversity: Multifaith perspectives in family therapy. Family Process, 49, 330–348. doi: 10.1111/j.1545-5300.2010.01326.x.
Walsh, F. (2012). Facilitating family resilience: Relational resources for positive youth development in conditions of adversity. In M. Ungar (ed.), The social ecology of resilience: A handbook of theory and practice (pp. 173–185). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-0586-3_15.
Walsh, F. (2013). Community-based practice applications of a family resilience framework. In D. S. Be­cvar (ed.), Handbook of family resilience (pp. 65–82). New York: Springer Science + Business Media. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3917-2_5.
Walsh, F. (2016). Family resilience: A developmental systems framework. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13, 313–324. doi:10.1080/17405629.2016.1154035.