RESEARCH PAPER
Aggression in late childhood and in early adolescence in Slovenia: two-wave cohort study
 
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Educational Research Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Submission date: 2016-05-13
Final revision date: 2016-11-11
Acceptance date: 2017-01-21
Online publication date: 2017-02-28
Publication date: 2017-03-31
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2017;5(1):32–40
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background
The present study investigated age differences in trait aggression in the period of late childhood and early adolescence that are important for assessment of the aggression levels that are not in line with expected developmental trends and are in need of intervention. Additionally the authors present the time trends from measurement of aggression and its subtypes at two time points.

Participants and procedure
The authors focus on specific subtypes of aggression relevant for the Slovenian context and for the development period. We used the LA aggression scale (general trait aggression and four factors: physical aggression, verbal aggression, internal aggression and aggression towards authority) as a measure of aggression in two age groups, 10-year-olds (n = 4,351) and 14-year-olds (n = 4,043), at two time points (in 2007 and in 2011).
Results
The results show significant cross-sectional differences in the level of aggression. Older participants exhibit higher levels of general aggression as well as all four aggression types (also in a cohort design). The findings are aligned with contemporary research on personality development stressing greater stability after the period of adolescence. The time-related trends show a significant decrease in physical aggression and an increase in internal aggression from 2007 to 2011 in both observed age groups.

Conclusions
The implications of the findings are discussed, and in line with the results early intervention is supported.
 
REFERENCES (43)
1.
Alsaker, F., & Dick-Niederhauser, A. (2008). Depression and suicide. In S. Jackson & L. Goossens (eds.), Handbook of adolescent development: European perspectives (pp. 308–336). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
 
2.
Archer, J., & Coyne, S. M. (2005). An integrated review of indirect, relational, and social aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 9, 212–230. doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0903_2.
 
3.
Barth, J. M., Dunlap, S. T., Dane, H., Lochman, J. E., & Wells, K. C. (2004). Classroom environment influences on aggression, peer relations, and academic focus. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 115–133. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2003.11.004.
 
4.
Bjorkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends in regard to direct and indirect aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 18, 117–127.
 
5.
Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Neckerman, H. J., Ferguson, L. L., & Gariepy, J. L. (1989). Growth and aggression: 1. Childhood to early adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 25, 320–330.
 
6.
Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: a meta-analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child Development, 79, 1185–1229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x.
 
7.
Choynowski, M. (1995). Does aggressiveness have a factorial structure? Personality and Individual Differences, 18, 167–187. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(94)00143-G.
 
8.
Connor, D. F. (2002). Aggression and antisocial behaviour in children and adolescents. Research and treatment. New York, USA: Guilford Press.
 
9.
Connor, D. F., Steingard, R. J., Cunningham, J., Andreson, J. J., & Melloni, R. (2004). Proactive and reactive aggression in referred children and adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74, 139–136. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.74.2.129.
 
10.
Čotar Konrad, S. (2005). Čustvena klima v družini: primerjava med slovenskimi in španskimi študenti [Emotional climate in families: comparison between Slovene and Spanish studenst]. Psihološka Obzorja, 14, 81–105.
 
11.
Donnelan, M. B., & Robins, R. W. (2009). The development of personality across lifespan. In P. J. Corr & G. Matthews (eds.), Personality psychology (pp. 191–204). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
12.
Eron, L. D., Huesmann, L. R., Brice, P., Fischer, P., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). Age trends in the development of aggression, sex typing, and related television habits. Developmental Psychology, 19, 71–77.
 
13.
Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Waldman, I. D. (2007). The Cambridge handbook of violent behaviour and aggression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
14.
Goossens, L. (2008). The many faces of adolescent authonomy: parent-adolescent conflict, behavioural decision-making, and emotional distancing. In S. Jackson & L. Goossens (eds.), Handbook of adolescent development (pp. 135–153). Hove and New York: Psychology Press.
 
15.
Hudley, C. (1993). Comparing teacher and peer perception of aggression: An ecological approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 377–384.
 
16.
Huesmann, L. R. (1994). Aggressive behaviour – current perspectives. New York & London: Plenum Press.
 
17.
Huesmann, L. R., Dubow, E. F., & Boxer, P. (2009). Continuity of aggression from childhood to early adulthood as a predictor of life outcomes: Implications for the adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent models. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 136–149. doi: 10.1002/ab.20300.
 
18.
Huesmann, L. R., Eron, L. D., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1984). Stability of aggression over time and generations. Developmental Psychology, 20, 1120–1134.
 
19.
Japelj Pavešić, B., Svetlik, K., Rožman, M., & Kozina, A. (2008). Matematični dosežki Slovenije v raziskavi TIMSS 2007 [Mathamatical achievement in TIMSS 2007]. Ljubljana: Pedagoški Inštitut.
 
20.
Japelj Pavešić, B., Svetlik, K., & Kozina, A. (2012). Znanje matematika in naravoslovja med osnovnošolci v Sloveniji in po svetu [Mathematical and Science achievement in elementary school in Slovenia and abroad]. Ljubljana: Pedagoški Inštitut.
 
21.
Koops, W., & Orobio de Castro (2004). Development of aggression: causes and trajectories. In G. Bruinsma, H. Elffers, & J. de Keijser (eds.), Punishment, places, and perpetrators : developments in criminology and criminal justice research (pp. 232–247). Devon, UK: Willan Publishers.
 
22.
Kozina, A. (2014). Developmental and time-related trends of anxiety from childhood to early adolescence: Two-wave cohort study. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11, 546–559. doi: 10.1080/17405629.2014.881284.
 
23.
Kozina, A. (2016). Does Anxiety Lead to Aggression – a Test of a Model on Slovenian Samples? International Psychology Bulletin, 20, 43–48.
 
24.
Kozina, A. (2013). The LA aggression scale for elementary school and upper secondary school students: examination of psychometric properties of a new multidimensional measure of self-reported aggression. Psihologija, 46, 245–259. doi: 10.2298/PSI130402003K.
 
25.
Kim, J. E., Hetherington, E. M., & Reiss, D. (1999). Associations among family relationships, antisocial peers, and adolescents’ externalizing behaviours: gender and family type differences. Child Development, 70, 1209–1230.
 
26.
Loeber, R., & Hay, D. (1997). Key issues in the development of aggression and violence from childhood to early adulthood. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 371–410.
 
27.
Marjanovič Umek, L., & Zupančič, M. (2004). Razvojna psihologija [Developmental Psychology]. Ljubljana: Znanstvenoraziskovalni inštitut Filozofske fakultete.
 
28.
Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2009). Personality traits. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
 
29.
Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental Taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.
 
30.
Mugnaioni Lešnik, D., Koren, A., Logaj, V., & Brejc, M. (2008). Nasilje v šolah: Konceptualizacija, prepoznavanje in modeli preprečevanja in obvladovanja [Violence in schools: conceptiualization, recognitions and prevention models]. Ljubljana: Šola za ravnatelje.
 
31.
Musek, J. (1994). Psihološki portret Slovencev [Psychological profile of Slovenes]. Ljubljana: Sophia.
 
32.
Olweus, D. (1979). Stability of aggression patterns in males: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852–875.
 
33.
Overton, W. F. (2004). Trajectories of physical aggression from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing.
 
34.
Popp, U. (2003). Nasilje v šoli in koncepti njegovega preprečevanja [Violence prevention in schools]. Sodobna Pedagogika, 52, 26–41.
 
35.
Romano, E., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., & Swisher R. (2005). Multilevel correlates of childhood physical aggression and pro social behaviour. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 565–578. doi: 10.1007/s10802-005-6738-3.
 
36.
Small, M., & Terrick, K. (2001). School violence: An overview. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 8, 3–12.
 
37.
Tomori, M., Kienhorst, C. W., de Wilde, E. J., & van den Bout, J. (2001). Suicidal behaviour and family factors among Dutch and Slovenian high school students: a comparison. Acta Psychiatria Scandinavia, 104, 198–203.
 
38.
Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioural Development, 24, 129–141. doi: 10.1080/016502500383232.
 
39.
Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D. S., Séguin, J. R., Zoccolillo, M., Zelazo, P. D., Boivin, M., Pérusse, D., & Japel, C. (2004). Physical aggression during early childhood: Trajectories and predictors. Pediatrics, 114, 43–50.
 
40.
Twenge, J. M. (2000). The age of anxiety? Birth cohort change in anxiety and neuroticism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1007–1021. doi: 10.1O37//OO22-3514.79.6.1007.
 
41.
Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Barker, E. D. (2006). Subtypes of aggressive behaviours: A developmental perspective. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 30, 12–19. doi: 10.1177/0165025406059968.
 
42.
Vršnik Perše, T., Kozina, A., & Rutar Leban, T. (2011). Negative school factors and their influence on math and science achievement in TIMSS 2003. Educational Studies, 37, 265–276. doi: 10.1080/03055698.2010.506343.
 
43.
Wigfield, A., Byrnes, J. P., & Eccles, J. S. (2006). Development during early and middle adolescence. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 87–113). Mahwah, New Jersey, & London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192