Entitlement attitude in the workplace and its relationship to job satisfaction and organizational commitment
More details
Hide details
Submission date: 2016-12-29
Final revision date: 2017-02-15
Acceptance date: 2017-02-21
Online publication date: 2017-05-12
Publication date: 2018-02-01
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2018;6(1):34–46
This article is focused on the entitlement attitude in an organizational context. Its purpose was to examine the relationship of entitlement and its 3 components (active, passive and revengefulness) with job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

Participants and procedure
Two independent studies were conducted to examine the discussed relationships. In study 1 and study 2 there participated respectively 110 and 95 full-time employees from both genders working in public and private organizations. The 30-item Bulgarian version of the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. Job satisfaction measurement included employees’ affective response to their overall job and to various aspects of their job. The three aspects of organizational commitment (affective, instrumental and normative) were measured.

Active entitlement had a positive effect on satisfaction with results, satisfaction with supervisor, pay satisfaction and overall job satisfaction. It was not related to organizational commitment. Passive entitlement had a positive effect on satisfaction with tasks, but it correlated negatively with pay satisfaction. Higher level of passive entitlement predicted instrumental commitment. Revengefulness was negatively related to task satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor and overall satisfaction, and had a negative effect on affective commitment.

Different forms of entitlement have a diverse influence on the various aspects of job satisfaction and components of organizational commitment. Active and passive types of entitlement are more adaptive, whereas revengefulness is a maladaptive and dysfunctional attitude.
Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 267−299). New York: Academic Press Inc.
Allen, N., & Meyer, J. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1−18.
Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (2000). Personal control in organizations: A longitudinal investigation with newcomers. Human Relations, 53, 311−339.
Bruggemann, A. (1974). Zur Unterscheidung verschiedener Formen von “Arbeitszufriedenheit” [On different forms of job satisfaction]. Arbeit und Leistung, 28, 281−284.
Brummel, B., & Parker, K. (2015). Obligation and Entitlement in Society and the Workplace. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 64, 127–160.
Büssing, A. (1992). A dynamic view of job satisfaction in psychiatric nurses in Germany. Work & Stress, 6, 239−259.
Byrne, Z., Miller, B., & Pitts, V. (2010). Trait entitlement and perceived favorability of human resource management practices in the prediction of job satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 451−464.
Campbell, W. K., Bonacci, A. M., Shelton, J., Exline, J. J., & Bushman, B. J. (2004). Psychological entitlement: Interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 83, 29–45.
Fisher, C. D. (2000). Mood and emotions while working: Missing pieces of job satisfaction? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 185−202.
Fisk, G. (2010). “I want it all and I want it now!” An examination of the etiology, expression, and escalation of excessive employee entitlement. Human Resource Management Review, 20, 102−114.
Harvey, P., & Dasborough, M. (2015). Entitled to solutions: The need for research on workplace entitlement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 460–465.
Harvey, P., & Harris, K. J. (2010). Frustration-based outcomes of entitlement and influence of supervisor communication. Human Relations, 63, 1639–1660.
Harvey, P., & Martinko, M. J. (2009). An empirical examination of the role of attributions in psychological entitlement and its outcomes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, 459–476.
Huseman, R. C., Hatfield, J. D., & Miles, E. W. (1987). A new perspective on equity theory: the equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review, 12, 222–234.
Ilieva, S. (1998). Привързаност към организацията. Психологически анализ [Organizational commitment. Psychological analysis]. С., “Албатрос”.
Inauen, A., Jenny, G. J., & Bauer, G. F. (2015). Discriminating five forms of job satisfaction: Investigating their relevance for occupational health research and practice. Psychology, 6, 138−150.
Knights, J., & Kennedy, B. (2005). Psychological contract violation: Impacts on job satisfaction and organizational commitment among Australian senior public servants. Applied HRM Research, 10, 57–72.
Laird, M., Harvey, P., & Lancaster, J. (2015). Accountability, entitlement, tenure, and satisfaction in Generation Y. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30, 87−100.
Major, D. A., Kozlowski, S. W. J., Chao, G. T., & Gardner, P. D. (1995). A longitudinal investigation of newcomer expectations, early socialization outcomes, and the moderating effects of role development factors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 418−431.
Martinko, M. J., & Gardner, W. L. (1987). The leader member attribution process. Academy of Management Review, 72, 235−249.
Naumann, S., Minsky, B., & Sturman, M. (2002). The use of the concept ‘entitlement’ in management literature: a historical review, synthesis, and discussion of compensation policy implications. Human Resource Management Review, 12, 145−166.
Paspalanova, E., & Dragova, S. (2013). Факторна структура на въпросник за измерване на нагласата „Полага ми се” [Factor structure of Entitlement questionnaire]. Психологични изследвания, 2, 307−312.
Piotrowski, J., & Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M. (2009). Kwestionariusz roszczeniowości [Entitlement questionnaire]. Roczniki Psychologiczne, 12, 151−177.
Radoslavova, M., & Velichkov, A. (2005). Методи за психодиагностика [Methods for psychological diagnostics]. Sofia: Andora Prim.
Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 890−902.
Sauley, K. S., & Bedeian, A. G. (2000). Equity sensitivity: construction of a measure and examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Management, 26, 885–910.
Tomlinson, E. (2013). An Integrative Model of Entitlement Beliefs. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 25, 67−87.
Twenge, J. M. (2006). Generation Me-Revised and Updated: Why today’s young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled and more miserable than ever before. New York: Free Press.
Unterrainer, C., Jeppesen, H., & Jønsson, T. (2013). Different forms of job satisfaction: Does job satisfaction means satisfied employees? Psyke & Logos, 34, 398−419.
Wanous, J. P., Poland, T. D., Premack, S. L., & Davis, K. S. (1992). The effects of met expectations on newcomer attitudes and behaviors: a review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 288–297.
Wolfe Morrison, E., & Robinson, S. L. (1997). When employees feel betrayed: a model of how psychological contract violation develops. Academy of Management Review, 22, 226−231.
Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., Baran, T., Clinton, A., Pio­trowski, J., Baltatescu, S., & Van Hiel, A. (2013). Materialism, subjective well-being, and entitlement. Journal of Social Research and Policy, 4, 79−91.
Żemojtel-Piotrowska, M., & Piotrowski, J. (2012). Entitlement and belief in zero-sum game in the organizational context. In M. Lipowski & Z. Nieckarz (eds.), Management psychology in contemporary research (pp. 396−432). Gdańsk: WSA & B.