RESEARCH PAPER
Adverse childhood experiences in women with externalisation and internalisation disorders
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institute of Pedagogy and Psychology, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland
2
Świętokrzyskie Centre of Prophylaxis and Education, Kielce, Poland
3
Institute of Psychology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Submission date: 2019-10-10
Final revision date: 2020-04-25
Acceptance date: 2020-05-11
Online publication date: 2020-06-30
Publication date: 2020-07-20
 
Current Issues in Personality Psychology 2020;8(2):119–130
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Background:
The aim of the study was to determine the connections between adverse childhood experiences and complex post-traumatic dis-orders and attachment types in women with externalisation (addictions, crime) and internalisation disorders (anxiety disorders and mixed anxiety-depressive disorders).

Participants and procedure:
The methods used in the study were as follows: Adverse Childhood Experiences – International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ), Fam-ily of Origin Dysfunction Scale (FODS) by Gąsior, Brier’s Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2) and Adult Attachment Scale (AAS) by Collins and Read. The studied group comprised women (N = 159) with externalisation issues (addicted, n = 80, in-cluding the addicted and incarcerated n = 23) and with internalisation issues (n = 79). The overall results of the clinical groups were compared with the control group of women without adaptation issues (N = 129).

Results:
The examined groups of women with internalisation and externalisation disorders differ both in terms of intensity and the scope of adverse childhood experiences, as well as in complex post-traumatic stress and attachment extent. The results obtained and the conclusions drawn from the research indicate that it is necessary to include a detailed diagnosis of adverse childhood experi-ences and traumas in the therapy and social rehabilitation of women with internalisation and externalisation disorders.

Conclusions:
Development trajectories of externalisation and internalisation issues in women in view of their adverse childhood experiences require further studies.

 
REFERENCES (44)
1.
Bellis, M., Hughes, K., Leckenby, N., Jones, L., Baban, A., Kachaeva, M., Povilatis, R., Pudule, I., Qirjako, G., Ulukol, B., Raleva, M., & Terzic, N. (2014). Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviors in young adults: Surveys in eight eastern European countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 92, 641–655B. https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13....
 
2.
Briere, J. (1995). Trauma Symptom Inventory. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
 
3.
Briere, J. (2012). Trauma Symptom Inventory-2. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
 
4.
Carragher, N., Krueger, R. F., Eaton, N. R., & Slade, T. (2015). Disorders without borders: Current and future directions in the meta-structure of mental disorders. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 339–350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127....
 
5.
Collins, N. L., & Read, S. J. (1990). Adult attachment, working models, and relationship quality in dating cou-ples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 644–663. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3....
 
6.
Dragan, M. (2016). Problemowe picie alkoholu przez młode kobiety. Rola niekorzystnych doświadczeń i samo-regulacji emocji [Problematic drinking by young women. The role of adverse experiences and self-regulation of emotions]. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.
 
7.
Felitti, V. J. (2002). The relation between adverse childhood experiences and adult health: Turning gold into lead. The Permanente Journal, 6, 44–47.
 
8.
Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., Koss, M. P., & Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-....
 
9.
Gąsior, K. (2012). Funkcjonowanie noo-psychospołeczne i problemy psychiczne dorosłych dzieci alkoholików [Psychosocial functioning and psychopatological problems of adult childern of alcoholics]. Warszawa: Difin.
 
10.
Gąsior, K. (2014). Diversifying childhood experiences of adult children of alcoholics. Alcoholism and.
 
11.
Drug Addiction, 27, 289–304. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0867-....
 
12.
Gąsior, K. (2016). Międzynarodowy Kwestionariusz Negatywnych Doświadczeń Dzieciństwa – polskie tłuma-czenie i adaptacja [Adverse Childhood Experiences – International Questionnaire – Polish translation and adaptation]. Unpublished manuscript.
 
13.
Gąsior, K. (2017). Post-traumatic stress and attachment in incarcerated women – the role of risk and protective factors. Polskie Forum Psychologiczne, 22, 420–439. https://doi.org/10.14656/PFP20....
 
14.
Gąsior, K. (2018). The links between posttraumatic stress, attachment patterns and quality of life in incarcerated and addicted women. The role of resilience. Psychiatria Polska, 52, 1113–1125. https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/On....
 
15.
Green, B. L., Miranda, J., Daroowalla, A., & Siddique, J. (2005). Trauma exposure, mental health functioning and program needs of women in jail. Crime and Delinquency, 51, 133–151. https://doi.org/10.1177/001112....
 
16.
Hughes, K., Bellis, M. A., Hardcastle, K. A., Sethi, D., Butchart, A., Mikton, C., Jones, L., & Dunne, M. P. (2017). The effect of multiple adverse childhood experiences on health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Public Health, 2, e356–e366. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-....
 
17.
Kendler, K. S., & Myers, J. (2014). The boundaries of the internalizing and externalizing genetic spectra in men and women. Psychological Medicine, 44, 647–655. https://doi.org/10.1017/S00332....
 
18.
Kendler, K. S., Prescott, C. A., Myers, J., & Neale, M. C. (2003). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Archives of General Psy-chiatry, 60, 929–937. https://doi.org/10.1001/archps....
 
19.
Kiejna, A., Piotrowski, P., Adamowski, T., Moskalewicz, J., Wciórka, J., Stokwiszewski, J., Rabczenko, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2015). The prevalence of common mental disorders in the population of adult Poles by sex and age structure – an EZOP Poland study. Psychiatria Polska, 49,15–27. https://doi.org/10.12740/PP/30....
 
20.
Korhonen, M., Luoma, I., Salmelin, R., Siirtola, A., & Puura, P. (2018). The trajectories of internalizing and ex-ternalizing problems from early childhood to adolescence and young adult outcome. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2, 7–12.
 
21.
Kotov, R., Krueger, R. F., Watson, D., Achenbach, T. M., Althoff, R. R., Bagby, … Zimmerman, M. (2017). The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 126, 454–477. https://doi.org/10.1037/abn000....
 
22.
Krueger, R. F., & Markon, K. E. (2006). Understanding psychopathology: Melding behavior genetics, personali-ty, and quantitative psychology to develop an empirically based model. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 113–117. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963....
 
23.
Larkin, H., & Records, J. (2007). Adverse childhood experiences: Overview, response strategies, and integral the-ory. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, 2, 1–25.
 
24.
Lynch, S. M., DeHart, D. D., Belknap, J. E, & Green, B. L. (2012). Women’s pathways to jail: The roles & intersections of serious mental illness & trauma. Bureau of Justice Assistance. Retrieved from https://www.bja.gov/Publicatio....
 
25.
Lynch, S. M., DeHart, D. D., Belknap, J. E, Green, B. L., Dass-Brailsford, P., Johnson, K. A., & Whalley, E. (2014). A multisite study of the prevalence of serious mental illness, PTSD, and substance use disorders of women in jail. Psychiatric Services, 65, 670–674 https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.p....
 
26.
Łubiewska, K., & Van de Vijver, A. J. (2014). Attachment types or dimensions: Evidences form the Adult At-tachment Scale across three generations. Unpublished manuscript.
 
27.
Machel, H. (2014). Przestępczość kobiet i wobec kobiet – spojrzenie kryminologiczno-penitencjarne [Female criminality and crime against women – a criminological-penitentiary view]. Resocjalizacja Polska, 8, 13–25.
 
28.
Mallicoat, S. L. (2014). Women and crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 
29.
Messer, J., Maughan, B., Quinton, D., & Taylor, A. (2004). Precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 14, 82–107. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbm.57....
 
30.
Messina, N., & Grella, C. (2006). Childhood trauma and women’s health outcomes in California prison popula-tion. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1842–1848. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2....
 
31.
Reavis, J. A., Looman, J., Franco, K. A., & Rojas, B. (2013). Adverse childhood experiences and adult criminali-ty: How long must we live before we possess our own lives? The Permanente Journal, 17, 44–48. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/12....
 
32.
Rehm, J., Dawson, D., Frick, U., Gmel, G., Roerecke, M., Shield, K. D., & Grant, B. (2014). Burden of disease associated with alcohol use disorders in the United States. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 38, 1068–1077. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.1....
 
33.
Rosenbaum, J. (1989). Family dysfunction and female delinquency. Crime & Delinquency, 31, 31–44.
 
35.
Rosenfield, S., & Smith, D. (2010). Gender and mental health: Do men and women have different amounts or types of problems? In T. L. Scheid & T. N. Brown (Eds.), A handbook for the study of mental health: Social contexts, theories, and systems (pp. 256–267). New York: Cambridge University Press.
 
36.
Rossegger, A., Wetli, N., Urbaniok, F., Elbert, T., Cortoni, F., & Endrass, J. (2009). Women convicted for violent offenses: Adverse childhood experiences, low level of education and poor mental health. BMC Psychiatry, 9, article 81. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2....
 
37.
Sosnowska, E. (2012). Sytuacja życiowa kobiet przestępczyń – wybrane aspekty wiktymizacyjne [Life situa-tion of female criminals – selected victimization aspects]. Prace Naukowe Akademii im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie, 21, 263–273.
 
38.
Steadman, H. J., Osher, F. C., Robbins, P. C., Case, B., & Samuels, S. (2009). Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatric Services, 60, 761–765. https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.200....
 
39.
Swavola, E., Riley, K., & Subramanian, R. (2016). Overlooked: Women and jails in an era of reform. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
 
40.
Szatkowska, A. (2012). Przestępczość kobiet w Polsce w XIX, XX i XXI wieku [Women’s crime in Poland in the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries]. Przegląd Więziennictwa Polskiego, 74/75, 213–230.
 
41.
Thomas, K. M., Hopwood, C. J., Donnellan, M. B., Wright, A. G. C., Sanislow, C. A., McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Ansell, E. B., Grilo, C. M., McGlashan, T. H., Shea, M. T., Markowitz, J. C., Skodol, A. E., Zanarini, M. C., & Morey, L. C. (2014). Personality heterogeneity in PTSD: Distinc temperament and interpersonal typologies. Psychological Assessment, 26, 23–34. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00343....
 
42.
Wilcox, R. (2012). Modern statistics for the social and behavioral sciences. A practical introduction. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
 
43.
Wong, T. M., Slotboom, A. M., & Bijleveld, C. C. (2010). Risk factors for delinquency in adolescent and young adult females: a European review. European Journal of Criminology, 7, 266–284. https://doi.org/10.1177/147737....
 
44.
Wysocka, E., & Ostafińska-Molik, B. (2015). Rodzina w percepcji i doświadczeniach młodzieży prawidłowo i wadliwie przystosowanej – analiza porównawcza [Family in the perception and experience of suitably and unsuitably adapted young people – comparative analysis]. Pedagogika Społeczna, 2, 131–154.
 
eISSN:2353-561X
ISSN:2353-4192